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Irving Langmuir
Langmuir.jpg
Langmuir in 1932
Born (1881-01-31)31 January 1881
Died 16 August 1957(1957-08-16) (aged 76)
Nationality American
Alma mater Columbia University
University of Göttingen
Known for Inventor of the high-vacuum tube
Langmuir isotherm
Langmuir waves
Awards
Scientific career
Fields Chemistry, physics
Institutions General Electric
Doctoral advisor Friedrich Dolezalek
Other academic advisors Walther Nernst

Irving Langmuir ( 31 January 1881 – 16 August 1957) was an American chemist, physicist, and engineer. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry.

Langmuir's most famous publication is the 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his "concentric theory of atomic structure". Langmuir became embroiled in a priority dispute with Lewis over this work; Langmuir's presentation skills were largely responsible for the popularization of the theory, although the credit for the theory itself belongs mostly to Lewis. While at General Electric from 1909 to 1950, Langmuir advanced several fields of physics and chemistry, invented the gas-filled incandescent lamp and the hydrogen welding technique. The Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research near Socorro, New Mexico, was named in his honor, as was the American Chemical Society journal for surface science called Langmuir.

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