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Jefferson County, Florida facts for kids

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Jefferson County
Jefferson County Courthouse in Monticello
Jefferson County Courthouse in Monticello
Official seal of Jefferson County
Map of Florida highlighting Jefferson County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 610: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
Country  United States
State  Florida
Founded January 20, 1827
Named for Thomas Jefferson
Seat Monticello
Largest city Monticello
 • Total 637 sq mi (1,650 km2)
 • Land 598 sq mi (1,550 km2)
 • Water 38 sq mi (100 km2)  6.0%%
 • Estimate 
 • Density 23.6/sq mi (9.1/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts 2nd, 5th

Jefferson County is a county located in the Big Bend region in the northern part of the U.S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,761. Its county seat is Monticello.

Jefferson County is part of the Tallahassee, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Jefferson County was created in 1827. It was named for Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States of America, who had died the year before the county's establishment.

Forts of Jefferson County

  • Fort Roger Jones (1839), Aucilla (Ocilla Ferry), north of US 90.
  • Fort Noel (1839–1842), south of Lamont on the Aucilla River, six miles (10 km) northwest of Fort Pleasant in Taylor County. Also known as Fort Number Three (M).
  • Camp Carter (1838), near Waukeenah.
  • Fort Welaunee (1838), a settlers' fort on the Welaunee Plantation near Wacissa. Fort Gamble (1839–1843) was later established here.
  • Fort Aucilla (1843), two miles (3 km) south-east of Fort Gamble, southwest of Lamont, between the Aucilla and Wacissa Rivers. Also spelled Ocilla.
  • Fort Wacissa (1838), a settlers' fort located south of Wacissa on the Wacissa River, west of Cabbage Grove.


Fla-Ga state line US 19 south01
Entering Jefferson County on US 19 from Thomas County, Georgia

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 637 square miles (1,650 km2), of which 598 square miles (1,550 km2) is land and 38 square miles (98 km2) (6.0%) is water.

Jefferson County is the only county in Florida which borders both the state of Georgia and the Gulf of Mexico

Adjacent counties

National protected area

Water Bodies


Historical population
Census Pop.
1830 3,312
1840 5,713 72.5%
1850 7,718 35.1%
1860 9,876 28.0%
1870 13,398 35.7%
1880 16,065 19.9%
1890 15,757 −1.9%
1900 16,195 2.8%
1910 17,210 6.3%
1920 14,502 −15.7%
1930 13,408 −7.5%
1940 12,032 −10.3%
1950 10,413 −13.5%
1960 9,543 −8.4%
1970 8,778 −8.0%
1980 10,703 21.9%
1990 11,296 5.5%
2000 12,902 14.2%
2010 14,761 14.4%
2019 (est.) 14,246 −3.5%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790-1960 1900-1990
1990-2000 2010-2019

As of the census of 2010, there were 14,761 people, 5,646 households, and 3,798 families residing in the county. The population density was 25 people per square mile (8/km2). There were 5,251 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile (3/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 60.4% White, 36.2% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.50% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. 3.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 5,646 households, out of which 26.9% had individuals under the age of 18 living with them, 47.30% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.70% were non-families. 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 18.6% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 32.30% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.00 males age 18 and over.

The following income information is from the 2000 census. The median income for a household in the county was $32,998, and the median income for a family was $40,407. Males had a median income of $26,271 versus $25,748 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,006. About 13.30% of families and 17.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 17.00% of those age 65 or over.


Jefferson County's library is the R.J. Bailar Public Library, which works with the Wilderness Coast Public Libraries.



The sole existing railroad line is a CSX line once owned by the Seaboard Air Line Railroad that was used by Amtrak's Sunset Limited until 2005, when the service was truncated to New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina. No Amtrak trains stopped anywhere in Jefferson County.

Major highways

See also: List of county roads in Jefferson County, Florida
  • I-10.svg Interstate 10 is the main west-to-east interstate highway in the county, and serves as the unofficial dividing line between northern and southern Jefferson County. It contains three interchanges within the county; the first being SR 59 in Lloyd (Exit 217), the second at US 19 in Drifton (Exit 225), and the third south of Aucilla at CR 257 (Exit 233). Beyond this point I-10 runs through Madison County.
  • US 19.svg US 19 is the westernmost north-south US highway in the county. It enters from southwestern Madison County as the Georgia-Florida Parkway in a concurrency with US 27, then breaks away from US 27 in Capps to run straight north through Monticello where it encounters a traffic circle with US 90 around the historic Monticello Courthouse. North of the city it runs through the State of Georgia.
  • US 27.svg US 27 is another north-south US highway in the county. It enters from Madison County in a concurrency with US 19, but unlike US 19 breaks away at Capps and runs west toward Tallahassee
  • Florida 59.svg SR 59 is the westernmost north-south highway in Jefferson County and is the only roadway connection between U.S. 90 (at its intersection in Leon County) to the southernmost east-west route through Jefferson County, U.S. Route 98.
  • US 90.svg US 90 was the main west-to-east highway in the county, until it was surpassed by I-10. It enters the county from Leon County twice, the second time from a causeway over the southern end of Lake Miccosukee, and eventually enters Monticello in a traffic circle with US 19. East of the city, it curves southeast through rural Jefferson County, then passes north of Aucilla before crossing the Madison County Line at a bridge over the Aucilla River.
  • US 98.svg US 98 is the southernmost east-west route running through the Conservation Areas of the Gulf of Mexico from Wakulla to Taylor Counties. The sole major intersection is with SR 59.
  • US 221.svg US 221 is the easternmost US highway in the county, running south and north through the northeastern portion of Jefferson County, including Ashville before crossing the Georgia State Line.
  • CR 259


Lloyd Railroad Depot02
Old Lloyd Railroad Depot, now the area's post office


Census-designated places

Other unincorporated communities

  • Alma
  • Ashville
  • Capps
  • Casa Blanco
  • Cody
  • Dills
  • Drifton
  • Fanlew
  • Festus
  • Fincher
  • Jarrott
  • Limestone
  • Lois
  • Montivilla
  • Nash
  • Thomas City


Jefferson Cty High School Monticello01
Jefferson County High School

On April 23, 2009, the Florida Department of Education took over financial oversight of the district to rescue it from a declared financial emergency due to budget deficits. In June 2011, the district exited financial emergency one year sooner than expected due to efforts from District faculty and staff; subsequently, it operated for two years with a fund balance well over the mandated 3%.

Career Academies have been introduced on the campus of Jefferson County Middle High School offering students options in career areas connected to the local economy.

The Jefferson County Tigers won the state championship in football in 2011.

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