List of British monarchs facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Royal Arms
The Royal Arms since the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, featuring the arms of England in both the first and fourth quarters, Scotland in the second and Ireland in the third. In Scotland a separate version is used (shown right), whereby the Arms of Scotland take precedence.

There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603.

On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland (also previously in personal union with Great Britain) to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

House of Stuart (1707–1714)

Anne had been Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland since 8 March 1702, and so became Queen of Great Britain upon the Union of England and Scotland. (Her total reign was 12 years and 21 weeks.)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
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Anne
1 May 1707

1 August 1714
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&&07.&&&&&07 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&&092.&&&&&092 days)
Dahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II and VII
and Anne Hyde
Prince George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
No surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
Aged: 49 years, 176 days
Daughter of James II and VII
Cognatic primogeniture
Bill of Rights 1689

House of Hanover (1714–1901)

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, which excluded "Papists" (i.e. Roman Catholics) from the succession. In return for access to the English plantations in North America and the West Indies, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Anne, with no living children, her second cousin, George Louis, was the closest heir to the throne who was not Catholic. George was the son of Sophia of Hanover—granddaughter of James VI and I through his daughter Elizabeth. The Hanoverian kings of Great Britain retained their German titles, first as electors of Hanover/dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg and later as kings of Hanover; the two lands were ruled as separate states in personal union. The Hanoverian lands were separated when Queen Victoria ascended the throne of Great Britain; as German succession law prevented women from inheriting the Hanoverian throne, her uncle Ernest Augustus inherited in her stead.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714

11 June 1727
(12 years, 315 days)
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 28 May 1660
Leineschloss
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
Aged 67 years, 30 days
Great-grandson of James VI and I
Act of Settlement
Eldest son of Sophia of Hanover
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727

25 October 1760
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&033.&&&&&033 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&0125.&&&&&0125 days)
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 30 October 1683
Herrenhausen
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August 1705
Herrenhausen
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Aged 76 years, 361 days
Son of George I
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760

29 January 1820
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&059.&&&&&059 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&&096.&&&&&096 days)
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 4 June 1738
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Aged 81 years, 239 days
Grandson of George II
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820

26 June 1830
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&010.&&&&&010 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&0148.&&&&&0148 days)
George IV 1821 color.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
No verified children
(2) Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Aged 67 years, 318 days
Sons of George III
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830

20 June 1837
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&&06.&&&&&06 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&0359.&&&&&0359 days)
William IV.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Aged 71 years, 303 days
Victoria
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837

22 January 1901
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&063.&&&&&063 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&0216.&&&&&0216 days)
Queen Victoria 1843.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of the Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
aged 81 years, 243 days
Granddaughter of George III

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1901–1917) and Windsor (from 1917)

Because his father, Albert, Prince Consort, was of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward VII inaugurated a new royal house when he succeeded his mother Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover, in 1901. George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917, during the First World War, because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the country.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901

6 May 1910
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&&09.&&&&&09 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&0104.&&&&&0104 days)
King Edward VII by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
aged 68 years, 178 days
Son of Victoria
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910

20 January 1936
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&025.&&&&&025 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&0259.&&&&&0259 days)
King George V 1911.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70 years, 231 days
Son of Edward VII
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936

11 December 1936
(Abdicated after &&&&&&&&&&&&&&00.&&&&&00 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&0326.&&&&&0326 days)
Edward VIII Portrait - 1936.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
aged 77 years, 340 days
Sons of George V
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936

6 February 1952
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&015.&&&&&015 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&&057.&&&&&057 days)
King George VI.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56 years, 54 days
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952

Present
(&&&&&&&&&&&&&068.&&&&&068 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&&023.&&&&&023 days)
QEII.png Arms of the United Kingdom.svg 21 April 1926
Mayfair
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Living
Age 93 years, 314 days
Daughter of George VI



List of British monarchs Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.