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New Brunswick, New Jersey
|City of New Brunswick|
Hub City, The Healthcare City
Location of New Brunswick in Middlesex County. Inset: Location of Middlesex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of New Brunswick, New Jersey
|Established||December 30, 1730|
|Incorporated||September 1, 1784|
|Named for||Braunschweig, Germany or King George II of Great Britain|
|• Total||5.789 sq mi (14.995 km2)|
|• Land||5.227 sq mi (13.539 km2)|
|• Water||0.562 sq mi (1.456 km2) 9.71%|
|Area rank||264th of 566 in state
14th of 25 in county
|Elevation||62 ft (19 m)|
| • Estimate
|• Rank||27th of 566 in state
5th of 25 in county
|• Density||10,556.4/sq mi (4,075.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||34th of 566 in state
2nd of 25 in county
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (Eastern (EDT))|
08901-08906, 08933, 08989
|Area code(s)||732/848 and 908|
|GNIS feature ID||0885318|
|New Brunswick is the county seat for Middlesex County.|
The City of New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. It is the county seat of Middlesex County, and the home of Rutgers University. The city is located on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River. At the 2010 United States Census, the population of New Brunswick was 55,181, reflecting an increase of 6,608 (+13.6%) from the 48,573 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 6,862 (+16.5%) from the 41,711 counted in the 1990 Census. Due to the concentration of medical facilities in the area, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick is known as "the Hub City." The corporate headquarters and production facilities of several global pharmaceutical companies are situated in the city, including Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian. The Hungarian community continues to exist, alongside growing Asian and Hispanic communities that have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.
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Origins of the name
It was first inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. The first European settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was called Prigmore's Swamp (1681–1697), then known as Inian's Ferry (1691–1714). In 1714, the settlement was given the name New Brunswick, after the city of Braunschweig (called Brunswick in the Low German language), in state of Lower Saxony, in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League, later in the Holy Roman Empire, and was an administrative seat for the Duchy (and later Principality) of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Elector of Hanover, of the House of Hanover (also known as the House of Brunswick), became King George I of Great Britain (1660–1727). Alternatively, the city gets its name from King George II of Great Britain, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
During the Colonial and Early American periods
Centrally located between New York City and Philadelphia along an early thoroughfare known as the King's Highway and situated along the Raritan River, New Brunswick became an important hub for Colonial travelers and traders. New Brunswick was incorporated as a town in 1736 and chartered as a city in 1784. It was incorporated into a town in 1798 as part of the Township Act of 1798. It was occupied by the British in the winter of 1776–1777 during the Revolutionary War.
The Trustees of Queen's College (now Rutgers University), founded in 1766, voted to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting the city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, and several freshmen at a tavern called "The Sign of the Red Lion" on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets (now the grounds of the Johnson & Johnson corporate headquarters). Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, and at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was erected in 1808. It remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School (now Rutgers Preparatory School) was established also in 1766, and shared facilities with the College until 1830, when it located in a building (now known as Alexander Johnston Hall) across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1945, the Trustees of Rutgers divested itself of Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County.
The New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784 in New York, moved to New Brunswick in 1810, sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College. (Queen's closed from 1810 to 1825 due to financial problems, and reopened in 1825 as Rutgers College.) The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to tract of land covering 7 acres (2.8 ha) located less than one-half mile (800 m) west, which it still occupies, although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.
New Brunswick was formed by Royal charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex and Somerset counties and was reformed by Royal charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784.
African American community
The existence of an African American community dates back to the late 18th century, with the 1810 United States Census listing 53 free Blacks and 164 slaves. The city's Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church, located at 39 Morris Street, was originally established in 1825 at 25 Division Street, making it one of the oldest in New Jersey.
New Brunswick began attracting a Hungarian immigrant population around the turn of the 20th century. Hungarians were primarily attracted to the city by employment at Johnson & Johnson factories located in the city. Hungarians settled mainly in what today is the Fifth Ward.
The immigrant population grew until the end of the early century immigration boom. During the Cold War, the community was revitalized by the decision to house refugees from the failed 1956 Hungarian Revolution at Camp Kilmer, in nearby Edison. Even though the Hungarian population has been largely supplanted by newer immigrants, there continues to be a Hungarian Festival in the city held on Somerset Street on the first Saturday of June each year. Many Hungarian institutions set up by the community remain and active in the neighborhood, including: Magyar Reformed Church, Ascension Lutheran Church, St. Ladislaus Roman Catholic Church, St. Joseph Byzantine Catholic Church, Hungarian American Athletic Club, Aprokfalva Montessori Preschool, Széchenyi Hungarian Community School & Kindergarten, Teleki Pál Scout Home, Hungarian American Foundation, Vers Hangja, Hungarian Poetry Group, Bolyai Lecture Series on Arts and Sciences, Hungarian Alumni Association, Hungarian Radio Program, Hungarian Civic Association, Committee of Hungarian Churches and Organizations of New Brunswick, and Csűrdöngölő Folk Dance Ensemble.
Several landmarks in the city also testify to its Hungarian heritage. There is a street and a recreation park named after Lajos Kossuth, the famous leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The corner of Somerset Street and Plum Street is named Mindszenty Square where the first ever statue of Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty was erected. A stone memorial to the victims of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution also stands nearby.
About 50% of New Brunswick's population is self-identified as Hispanic, the 14th highest percentage among municipalities in New Jersey. Since the 1960s, many of the new residents of New Brunswick have come from Latin America. Many citizens moved from Puerto Rico in the 1970s. In the 1980s, many immigrated from the Dominican Republic, and still later from Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador and Mexico.
Demolition, revitalization and redevelopment
New Brunswick contains a number of examples of urban renewal in the United States. In the 1960s-1970s, the downtown area became blighted as middle class residents moved to newer suburbs surrounding the city, an example of the phenomenon known as "white flight." Beginning in 1975, Rutgers University, Johnson & Johnson and the local government collaborated through the New Jersey Economic Development Authority to form the New Brunswick Development Company (DevCo), with the goal of revitalizing the city center and redeveloping neighborhoods considered to be blighted and dangerous (via demolition of existing buildings and construction of new ones). Johnson & Johnson decided to remain in New Brunswick and built a new world headquarters building in the area between Albany Street, Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Route 18, and George Street, requiring many old buildings and historic roads to be removed. The Hiram Market area, a historic district that by the 1970s had become a mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican-American neighborhood, was demolished to build a Hyatt hotel and conference center, and upscale housing. Johnson & Johnson guaranteed Hyatt Hotels' investment as they were wary of building an upscale hotel in a run-down area.
The redevelopment process has been controversial. Devco, the hospitals, and the city government continue to draw ire from both historic preservationists, those opposing gentrification and those concerned with eminent domain abuses and tax abatements for developers.
New Brunswick is one of nine cities in New Jersey designated as eligible for Urban Transit Hub Tax Credits by the state's Economic Development Authority. Developers who invest a minimum of $50 million within a half-mile of a train station are eligible for pro-rated tax credit.
The Gateway tower, a 22-story redevelopment project next to the train station, was completed in 2012. The structure consists of apartments and condominiums (named "The Vue") built above a multi-story parking structure with a bridge connecting it to the station. Boraie Development, a real estate development firm based in New Brunswick, has developed projects using the incentive.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 5.789 square miles (14.995 km2), including 5.227 square miles (13.539 km2) of land and 0.562 square miles (1.456 km2) of water (9.71%). New Brunswick is in Raritan Valley (a line of cities in central New Jersey). New Brunswick is on the south side of Raritan Valley along with Piscataway Township, Highland Park, Edison Township, and Franklin Township (Somerset County). New Brunswick lies southwest of Newark and New York City and northeast of Trenton and Philadelphia.
New Brunswick is bordered by Piscataway, Highland Park and Edison across the Raritan River to the north by way of the Donald and Morris Goodkind Bridges, and also by North Brunswick Township to the southwest, East Brunswick Township to the southeast, and Franklin Township.
While the city does not hold elections based on a ward system it has been so divided. There are several neighborhoods in the city, which include the Fifth Ward, Feaster Park, Lincoln Park, Raritan Gardens, and Edgebrook-Westons Mills.
New Brunswick has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) typical to New Jersey, characterized by humid, hot summers and mild winters with moderate to considerable rainfall throughout the year. There is no marked wet or dry season.
|Climate data for New Brunswick, New Jersey|
|Average high °F (°C)||39.2
|Average low °F (°C)||21.7
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.62
|Snowfall inches (cm)||8.8
|Avg. precipitation days||10.7||9.2||10.5||11.8||12.2||11.2||10.4||9.3||8.7||8.9||9.5||9.8||122.2|
|Avg. snowy days||4.8||3.8||2.3||.4||0||0||0||0||0||0||.3||2.2||13.8|
1930–1990 2000 2010
As of the census of 2010, there were 55,181 people, 14,119 households, and 7,751 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,556.4 per square mile (4,075.8/km2). There were 15,053 housing units at an average density of 2,879.7 per square mile (1,111.9/km2)*. The racial makeup of the city was 45.43% (25,071) White, 16.04% (8,852) Black or African American, 0.90% (498) Native American, 7.60% (4,195) Asian, 0.03% (19) Pacific Islander, 25.59% (14,122) from other races, and 4.39% (2,424) from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49.93% (27,553) of the population.
There were 14,119 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.2% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.1% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.36 and the average family size was 3.91.
In the city, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 33.2% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 12.2% from 45 to 64, and 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.3 years. For every 100 females there were 105.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 105.3 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $44,543 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,356) and the median family income was $44,455 (+/- $3,526). Males had a median income of $31,313 (+/- $1,265) versus $28,858 (+/- $1,771) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $16,395 (+/- $979). About 15.5% of families and 25.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 48,573 people, 13,057 households, and 7,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,293.5 per square mile (3,585.9/km2). There were 13,893 housing units at an average density of 2,658.1 per square mile (1,025.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 48.79% White, 23.03% African American, 0.46% Native American, 5.32% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 18.08% from other races, and 4.24% from two or more races. 39.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 13,057 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.6% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.69.
20.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 34.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 11.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males.
The median household income in the city was $36,080, and the median income for a family was $38,222. Males had a median income of $25,657 versus $23,604 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,308. 27.0% of the population and 16.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 25.9% were under the age of 18 and 13.8% were 65 or older.
Arts and culture
Three neighboring professional venues, Crossroads Theatre designed by Parsons+Fernandez-Casteleiro Architects from New York. In 1999, the Crossroads Theatre won the prestigious Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theatre. Crossroads is the first African American theater to receive this honor in the 33-year history of this special award category. There is also George Street Playhouse, and the State Theatre, comprise the heart of the local theatre scene. Crossroad Theatre houses American Repertory Ballet and the Princeton Ballet School. Rutgers University has a number of student companies that perform everything from cabaret acts to Shakespeare and musical productions.
New Brunswick is the site of the Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum, founded in 1966, at Rutgers University, Albus Cavus, and the Rutgers University Geology Museum.
New Brunswick was an important center for avant-garde art in the 1950s-70s with several artists such as Allan Kaprow, George Segal, George Brecht, Robert Whitman, Robert Watts, Lucas Samaras, Geoffrey Hendricks, Wolf Vostell and Roy Lichtenstein; some of whom taught at Rutgers University. This group of artists was sometimes referred to as the 'New Jersey School' or the 'New Brunswick School of Painting'. The YAM Festival was venue on May 19, 1963 to actions and Happenings. For more information, see Fluxus at Rutgers University.
The "Grease Trucks" are a group of truck-based food vendors located on the College Avenue campus of Rutgers University. They are known for serving "Fat Sandwiches," a sub roll containing several ingredients such as steak, chicken fingers, French fries, falafel, cheeseburgers, mozzarella sticks, gyro meat, bacon, eggs and marinara sauce. In 2013 the grease trucks were removed for the construction of a new Rutgers building and were forced to move into various other areas of the Rutgers- New Brunswick Campus.
New Brunswick's bar scene has been the home to many original rock bands, including some which went on to national prominence such as The Smithereens and Bon Jovi, as well as a center for local punk rock and underground music. Many alternative rock bands got radio airplay thanks to Matt Pinfield who was part of the New Brunswick music scene for over 20 years at Rutgers University radio station WRSU. Local pubs and clubs hosted many local bands, including the Court Tavern until 2012 (since reopened), and the Melody Bar during the 1980s and 1990s. As the New Brunswick basement scene grows in popularity, it was ranked the number 4 spot to see Indie bands in New Jersey.
As of May 2010[update], the city had 73.24 miles (117.87 km) of roadways, of which 56.13 miles (90.33 km) were maintained by the municipality, 8.57 miles (13.79 km) by Middlesex County, 7.85 miles (12.63 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 0.69 miles (1.11 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.
The city encompasses the intersection of U.S. Route 1 and Route 18, and is bisected by Route 27. New Brunswick hosts less than a mile of the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95). A few turnpike ramps are in the city that lead to Exit 9 which is just outside the city limits in East Brunswick Township.
New Brunswick Parking Authority manages 14 ground-level and multi-story parking facilities across the city. CitiPark manages a downtown parking facility at 2 Albany Street.
New Brunswick is served by NJ Transit and Amtrak trains on the Northeast Corridor Line. NJ Transit provides frequent service north to Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, and south to Trenton, while Amtrak's Keystone Service and Northeast Regional trains service the New Brunswick station. The Jersey Avenue station is also served by Northeast Corridor trains. For other Amtrak connections, riders can take NJ Transit to Penn Station (New York or Newark), Trenton, or Metropark.
Local bus service is provided by NJ Transit's 810, 811, 814, 815, 818 routes and 980 route, the extensive Rutgers Campus bus network, the MCAT/BrunsQuick shuttle system, DASH buses, and NYC bound Suburban Trails buses. Studies are being conducted to create the New Brunswick Bus Rapid Transit system.
New Brunswick was at the eastern terminus of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, of which there are remnants surviving or rebuilt along the river. Until 1936, the city was served by the interurban Newark–Trenton Fast Line.
- On April 18, 1872, at New Brunswick, William Cameron Coup developed the system of loading circus equipment and animals on railroad cars from one end and through the train, rather than from the sides. This system would be adopted by other railroad circuses and used through the golden age of railroad circuses and even by the Ringling shows today.
- The 1980s sitcom, Charles in Charge, was set in New Brunswick.
- The 2004 movie Harold and Kumar Go To White Castle revolves around Harold and Kumar's attempt to get to a White Castle restaurant and includes a stop in a fictionalized New Brunswick.
- A segment of an episode of Rescue 911 featured a young boy from New Brunswick who called 911 when he realized his mother had a brain hemorrhage.
Points of interest
- Albany Street Bridge across the Raritan River to Highland Park
- Bishop House, 115 College Avenue, a mansion of the Italianate style of architecture, was built for James Bishop. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.
- Old Queens, built in 1809, is the oldest building at Rutgers University.
- Buccleuch Mansion in Buccleuch Park
- Historic Christ Church Episcopal Churchyard, New Brunswick
- The Henry Guest House
- William H. Johnson House c. 1870
- St. Peter The Apostle Church, built in 1856 and located at 94 Somerset Street.
- Delaware and Raritan Canal
- The historic Old Queens Campus and Voorhees Mall at Rutgers University
- Birthplace of poet Joyce Kilmer
- Kilmer Square, a retail/commercial complex on Albany Street
- Site of Johnson & Johnson world headquarters
- Rutgers Gardens (in nearby North Brunswick)
- The Willow Grove Cemetery near downtown
- Grave of Mary Ellis (1750–1828). This grave stands out due to its location in the AMC Theatres parking lot on U.S. Route 1 downriver from downtown New Brunswick.
- Lawrence Brook, a tributary of the Raritan River.
- Elmer B. Boyd Park, a park running along the Raritan River, adjacent to Route 18.
Places of worship
- Abundant Life Family Worship Church - founded in 1991.
- Anshe Emeth Memorial Temple (Reform Judaism) - established in 1859.
- Ascension Lutheran Church - founded in 1908 as The New Brunswick First Magyar Augsburg Evangelical Church.
- Christ Church, Episcopal - granted a royal charter in 1761.
- Ebenezer Baptist Church
- First Baptist Church of New Brunswick, American Baptist
- First Presbyterian, Presbyterian (PCUSA)
- First Reformed Reformed (RCA)
- Kirkpatrick Chapel at Rutgers University (nondenominational)
- Magyar Reformed, Calvinist
- Mount Zion AME (African Methodist Episcopal)
- Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary Ukrainian Catholic Church
- Point Community Church
- Saint Joseph, Byzantine Catholic
- Saint Ladislaus, Roman Catholic
- Saint Mary of Mount Virgin Church, Remsen Avenue and Sandford Street, Roman Catholic
- Sacred Heart Church, Throop Avenue, Roman Catholic
- Saint Peter the Apostle Church, Somerset Street, Roman Catholic
- Second Reformed Church, Reformed (RCA)
- Sharon Baptist Church
- United Methodist Church at New Brunswick
- Voorhees Chapel at Rutgers University (nondenominational)
New Brunswick has four sister cities, as listed by Sister Cities International:
- Debrecen, Hajdú-Bihar, Hungary
- Fukui City, Fukui, Japan
- Limerick, County Limerick, Munster, Ireland
- Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan
- New Brunswick Public Schools's 2014–15 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
|North Brunswick Township||East Brunswick Township|
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