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Longueuil
City
Ville de Longueuil
Longueuil 2011.jpg
Flag of Longueuil
Flag
Coat of arms of Longueuil
Coat of arms
Official logo of Longueuil
Logo
Motto: "Labor et Concordia"  (Latin)
"Work and Harmony"
Country  Canada
Province  Quebec
Region Montérégie
RCM None
Agglomeration Longueuil
Settled 1657
Constituted January 1, 2002
Area
 • Total 122.90 km2 (47.45 sq mi)
 • Land 115.59 km2 (44.63 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 231,409
 • Density 2,002.0/km2 (5,185/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006-2011 Increase 0.9%
 • Dwellings 106,499
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code(s) J3Y, J3Z, J4G to J4N, J4T, J4V
Area code(s) 450 and 579
Highways
A-20
A-25
A-30

Route 112
Route 116
Route 132
Route 134
Demonym Longueuillois(e)
Website www.longueuil.ca

Longueuil (/lɒŋˈɡl/; French: [lɔ̃ɡœj]) is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada. It is the seat of the Montérégie administrative region and the central city of the urban agglomeration of Longueuil. It sits on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River directly across from Montreal. The population as of the Canada 2011 Census totaled 231,409, making it Montreal's second largest suburb, the fifth most populous city in Quebec and nineteenth largest in Canada.

Charles Le Moyne founded Longueuil as a seigneurie in 1657. It would become a parish in 1845, a village in 1848, a town in 1874 and a city in 1920. Between 1961 and 2002, Longueuil's borders grew three times, as it was amalgamated with surrounding municipalities; there was a strong de-amalgamation in 2006 (see 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec).

Longueuil is a residential, commercial and industrial city. It incorporates some urban features, but is essentially a suburb. Longueuil can be classified as a commuter town as a large portion of its residents commute to work in Montreal. Most buildings are single-family homes constructed in the post-war period. The city consists of three boroughs: Le Vieux-Longueuil, Saint-Hubert and Greenfield Park.

Longueuil is the seat of the judicial district of Longueuil. Residents of the city are called Longueuillois.

History

Fort Longueuil 1825
Ruins of Fort Longueuil in 1825.

The territory of New France was divided into seigneuries in order to ensure the colony's defence. Longueuil was founded in 1657 by Charles Le Moyne, a merchant from Ville-Marie (present day Montreal), as a seigneurie. According to Abbé Faillon, Charles Le Moyne, lord of the area starting in 1657, named Longueuil after a village which is today the seat of a canton in the district of Dieppe in his homeland of Normandy. In France, the name is spelled "Longueil" and it is rumored that it was a mistake to spell it "Longueuil".

His son, Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil, built Fort Longueuil as his fortified residence. It was constructed of stone between 1685 and 1690 and had four towers.

Fort Longueuil was believed to be occupied by American troops during the American Revolutionary War. It was subsequently occupied by the British. It was demolished in 1810 due to its poor condition. The archaeological remains of Fort Longueuil were recognized as a National Historic Site of Canada on May 25, 1923. The site extends beneath the present-day Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue Cathedral.

The church and Rue St. Charles, Longueuil, QC, about 1910
The Co-Cathedral of Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue and Rue St. Charles, Longueuil, QC, about 1910

The seigneurial system ended in 1845 and Longueuil was turned into a parish municipality named Saint-Antoine-de-Longueuil. In 1848, a portion detached from the parish and officially established as the village of Longueuil. This same village became a town in 1874, and then a city in 1920. Musician Paul Pratt notably served as the city's mayor from 1935-1966.

Longueuil's city limits expanded for the first time in 1961 when it merged with Montréal-Sud, and again in 1969 when it merged with Ville Jacques-Cartier. In both cases, Longueuil was chosen as the name of the new city.

On January 1, 2002, as part of the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the provincial government amalgamated the former Longueuil with Boucherville, Brossard, Greenfield Park, LeMoyne, Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Saint-Hubert and Saint-Lambert. As with the 1960s, the name Longueuil was chosen for the new city. However, after a change of government and a 2004 referendum, Boucherville, Brossard, Saint-Lambert and Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville were re-constituted as independent cities on January 1, 2006. As such, the current city of Longueuil now includes only the former cities of Longueuil (1969-2002), Saint-Hubert, Greenfield Park and LeMoyne.

Geography

Longueuil Quebec location diagram
Location of the city of Longueuil within the Urban Agglomeration of Longueuil.

Longueuil occupies 115.59 square kilometres (44.6 sq mi) of land. The city is bordered by the cities of Saint-Lambert and Brossard to the west, Boucherville and Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville to the east, and the Saint Lawrence River and Montreal to the north. The city of Longueuil is located approximately 7 kilometres (5 mi) south of Montreal on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River.

Longueuil is located in the Saint Lawrence River valley, and is a vast plain. Areas near the river were originally swamp land with mixed forest, and later prime agricultural land. Agricultural land still exists in the portions of the city furthest from the river.

The city of Longueuil also includes Île Charron, a small island in the Saint Lawrence River, and part of the Boucherville Islands.

Like Montreal, Longueuil is classified as humid continental or hemiboreal (Köppen climate classification Dfb). Longueuil has long winters, lasting from November to March, short springs during April and May, average summers, lasting from June to August, and short autumns during September and October.

Climate data for Montréal/Saint-Hubert Airport (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Humidex 15.4 15.5 23.4 34.7 38.7 47.2 46.2 46.9 41.8 34.5 24.9 18.0 47.2
Record high °C (°F) 13.9
(57)
15.3
(59.5)
23.7
(74.7)
30.6
(87.1)
33.3
(91.9)
35.0
(95)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
33.8
(92.8)
28.9
(84)
22.8
(73)
17.1
(62.8)
35.6
Average high °C (°F) -5.6
(21.9)
-3.2
(26.2)
2.3
(36.1)
11.3
(52.3)
19.1
(66.4)
23.8
(74.8)
26.3
(79.3)
25.4
(77.7)
20.5
(68.9)
13.0
(55.4)
5.6
(42.1)
-1.5
(29.3)
11.42
(52.55)
Daily mean °C (°F) -10.4
(13.3)
-8.2
(17.2)
-2.5
(27.5)
5.7
(42.3)
12.9
(55.2)
17.9
(64.2)
20.6
(69.1)
19.5
(67.1)
14.7
(58.5)
7.9
(46.2)
1.5
(34.7)
-5.8
(21.6)
6.15
(43.07)
Average low °C (°F) -15.1
(4.8)
-13.1
(8.4)
-7.3
(18.9)
0.1
(32.2)
6.7
(44.1)
11.9
(53.4)
14.8
(58.6)
13.6
(56.5)
8.8
(47.8)
2.7
(36.9)
-2.6
(27.3)
-10.1
(13.8)
0.87
(33.56)
Record low °C (°F) -36.1
(-33)
-37.2
(-35)
-36.1
(-33)
-15.0
(5)
-4.4
(24.1)
0.0
(32)
4.9
(40.8)
1.7
(35.1)
-4.9
(23.2)
-8.9
(16)
-22.8
(-9)
-37.2
(-35)
-37.2
Wind chill -49.0 -46.0 -40.0 -26.0 -10.0 0 0 0 -6.0 -14.0 -30.0 -45.0 -49
Precipitation mm (inches) 75.8
(2.984)
61.9
(2.437)
71.6
(2.819)
82.7
(3.256)
81.7
(3.217)
87.3
(3.437)
96.8
(3.811)
88.3
(3.476)
84.5
(3.327)
87.0
(3.425)
104.3
(4.106)
88.8
(3.496)
1,010.7
(39.791)
Rainfall mm (inches) 26.4
(1.039)
22.8
(0.898)
33.9
(1.335)
67.8
(2.669)
81.5
(3.209)
97.3
(3.831)
96.8
(3.811)
88.3
(3.476)
84.5
(3.327)
85.3
(3.358)
84.4
(3.323)
39.4
(1.551)
808.4
(31.827)
Snowfall cm (inches) 52.0
(20.47)
39.0
(15.35)
36.5
(14.37)
13.4
(5.28)
0.2
(0.08)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.4
(0.55)
18.0
(7.09)
48.8
(19.21)
209.3
(82.4)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 17.4 13.8 14.2 13.4 13.7 12.4 12.4 11.5 10.8 13.1 15.6 16.3 164.6
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.5 4.5 7.5 11.7 13.7 12.2 12.3 11.5 10.8 12.7 12.3 6.0 119.7
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 15.4 11.8 9.3 3.5 0.14 0 0 0 0 0.74 5.7 12.9 59.48
Source: Environment Canada

Demographics

Ethnic Origin (2006)
Ethnic Origin Population Percent
Canadian 132,210 58.3%
French 68,325 30.1%
Irish 14,115 6.2%
English 8,075 3.6%
Italian 7,870 3.5%
First Nations 6,780 3%
Scottish 6,635 2.9%
Québécois 5,630 2.5%
Haitian 5,140 2.3%
German 4,870 2.1%
Spanish 3,315 1.5%
Chinese 3,080 1.4%
Portuguese 2,590 1.1%
Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1871 3,977 —    
1881 4,488 +12.8%
1891 4,895 +9.1%
1901 5,204 +6.3%
1911 6,984 +34.2%
1921 11,521 +65.0%
1931 14,094 +22.3%
1941 18,165 +28.9%
1951 58,012 +219.4%
1956 83,584 +44.1%
1961 106,166 +27.0%
1966 129,944 +22.4%
1971 157,986 +21.6%
1976 197,767 +25.2%
1981 209,557 +6.0%
1986 215,583 +2.9%
1991 226,965 +5.3%
1996 227,408 +0.2%
2001 225,761 −0.7%
2006 229,330 +1.6%
2011 231,409 +0.9%
2014 est. 240,954 +4.1%
Canada 2011 Census Population  % of Total Population
Ethnicity group
Source:
White 193,360 84.8
Black 10,500 4.6
Latin American 5,810 2.5
Arab 5,290 2.3
Chinese 2,870 1.3
Southeast Asian 2,605 1.1
South Asian 2,085 0.9
First Nations 1,330 0.6
West Asian 1,275 0.6
Métis 645 0.3
Multiple visible minority 560 0.2
Other visible minority 545 0.2
Filipino 480 0.2
Korean 195 0
Other aboriginal identities 180 0
Japanese 170 0
Inuit 50 0
Multiple aboriginal identities 25 0
Total population 227,970 100

According to the 2011 Canadian Census, the city of Longueuil had 231,409 people, an increase of 0.9% over 2006's figure of 229,330. Longueuil occupies 115.59 square kilometres of space, giving the city a population density of 2,002 persons per kilometre squared. There were 106,499 private dwellings, 102,067 of which were occupied by usual residents.

Of the 132,570 workers in Longueuil, the median income was $26,537, which is above Quebec's provincial average of $25,464. Among the 69,990 full-time workers, the median income was $37,521 or slightly below the provincial average. Several of Montreal's most impoverished neighborhoods are located in Longueuil.

As of the 2011 Canadian Census, French was the mother tongue language of 81.4% of Longueuil's residents while English was the first language of 7.5%. Other languages were spoken by 13.6% of the population, with the most spoken being Spanish (3.0%), Arabic (2.1%), Haitian Creole (1.2%), Romanian (0.7%), Persian (0.7%), Chinese (0.6%), Italian (0.6%) and Portuguese (0.6%). These figures include multiple responses.

Canada Census Mother Tongue - Longueuil, Quebec
Mother tongue language
Census Total
French
English
French & English
Other
Year Responses Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop %
2011
229,550
181,800 Increase 0.0005% 79.21% 14,155 Decrease 8.05% 6.17% 2,460 Increase 37.05% 1.07% 28,115 Increase 0.97% 12.25%
2006
226,820
181,790 Decrease 1.40% 80.15% 15,395 Increase 10.87% 6.79% 1,795 Decrease 4.5% 0.81% 27,845 Increase 56.86% 12.28%
2001
218,810
184,380 Increase 0.39% 84.26% 13,885 Decrease 17.22% 6.35% 1,880 Decrease 17.74% 0.86% 17,795 Increase 5.95% 8.13%
1996
220600
183,065 n/a 82.99% 16,775 n/a 7.60% 2,285 n/a 1.04% 16,795 n/a 7.61%

People of European origins made up 87.6% of the population in 2006. The largest visible minority groups are Black (4.1%), Latin American (2%), Arab (1.6%), Chinese (1.2%), Southeast Asian (1%), and South Asian (0.7%).

Arts and culture

There are several notable cultural events in Longueuil each year. The Longueuil International Percussion Festival, which features 500 musicians, takes place over six days in July in the neighbourhood of Old Longueuil, and draws 200,000 visitors per year.

Attractions

Parc Régional de Longueuil
Parc Michel-Chartrand in Le Vieux-Longueuil.

There are three nature parks in Longueuil, Parc Marie-Victorin and Parc Michel-Chartrand in Le Vieux-Longueuil and Parc de la Cité in Saint-Hubert. It is also home to a wildlife reserve, the Boisé du Tremblay, which is partially in Le Vieux-Longueuil and partially in Boucherville.

There are seven arenas: Cynthia Coull Arena in Greenfield Park; Aréna Émile-Butch-Bouchard, Aréna Jacques-Cartier, Aréna Olympia and Colisée Jean Béliveau in Le Vieux-Longueuil; and Centre sportif Gaétan-Boucher and Centre sportif Rosanne-Laflamme in Saint-Hubert.

Notable places of worship include the Roman Catholic Co-Cathedral of Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue, Église Nouvelle Vie evangelical church, Saint-Hubert Church [fr], and the Montréal Québec Temple of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

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