Ubuntu Desktop 16.04 "Xenial Xerus"
|Company / developer||Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu community|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||20 October 2004|
|Latest stable release||Xenial Xerus (16.04.1) / 21 July 2016|
|Marketing target||Personal computing
Smart TVs (Ubuntu TV)
Tablet computers (Ubuntu Touch)
|Available language(s)||Multi-lingual (more than 55)|
|Update method||APT / Software Updater
Ubuntu Software Center
|Package manager||dpkg, Click|
|Supported platforms||IA-32, X86-64, ARM|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux kernel)|
|Default user interface||4.10–11.04: GNOME Panel
11.04 and later: Unity
|License||Free software licenses
It is one of the most popular Linux distributions and it is based on Debian Linux. The goal with Ubuntu is to make it easy to use and install onto a computer. Ubuntu can be used on all types of personal computers. Ubuntu is downloaded as a DVD, which is free to download on the Ubuntu website. It can be installed or tested by running the DVD.
Packages and software support
Ubuntu splits all software into four different categories to show differences in licensing and the amount of support available. They are:
|free software||non-free software|
Free software here includes only software that meets the Ubuntu licensing requirements, which almost are the same as the Debian Free Software Guidelines. There is one difference for the Main category, however — it has firmware and fonts which cannot be changed, but are included if Ubuntu will not work right.
Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are given for very important non-free software. Supported non-free software include device drivers that are needed to run Ubuntu on current hardware. The level of support in the Restricted category is less than that of Main, since the developers may not be able to get to the source code. It is wanted that Main and Restricted should contain all the software needed for a general-use Linux system.
Besides the official repositories is Ubuntu Backports, which is an officially known project to backport newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive (meaning that it has parts missing from it); it is mostly made up of user-requested packages, which are accepted if they meet quality guidelines.
The number of the Ubuntu release is 'X.YY', with 'X' being the year of release (minus 2000) and 'Y' being the month of release. For example, Ubuntu 4.10 was released in October (the tenth month of the year), 2004. The name of the release (for example, Breezy Badger) is an adjective (a describing word) followed by the name of an animal.
|Version||Release date||Name||More information|
|4.10||20 October 2004||Warty Warthog||First version|
|5.04||8 April 2005||Hoary Hedgehog||First "Kubuntu" created|
|5.10||13 October 2005||Breezy Badger||First "Edubuntu"|
|6.06||1 June 2006||Dapper Drake||LTS-version, First "Xubuntu" created|
|6.06.1||August 2006||Dapper Drake Point One||LTS-version, 1st update|
|6.06.2||January 2008||Dapper Drake Point Two||LTS-version, 2nd update|
|6.10||26 October 2006||Edgy Eft||experimental version|
|7.04||19 April 2007||Feisty Fawn|
|7.10||18 October 2007||Gutsy Gibbon||First "Gobuntu" created|
|8.04||24 April 2008||Hardy Heron||LTS-version|
|8.04.1||June 2008||Hardy Heron Point One||LTS-version, 1st update|
|8.10||27 October 2008||Intrepid Ibex|
|9.04||23 April 2009||Jaunty Jackalope|
|9.10||29 October 2009||Karmic Koala|
|10.04||29 April 2010||Lucid Lynx||LTS-version|
|10.10||10 October 2010||Maverick Meerkat|
|11.04||28 April 2011||Natty Narwhal|
|11.10||13 October 2011||Oneiric Ocelot|
|12.04||26 April 2012||Precise Pangolin||LTS-version|
|12.10||18 October 2012||Quantal Quetzel|
|13.04||25 April 2013||Raring Ringtail|
|13.10||17 October 2013||Saucy Salamander||Server release|
|14.04||17 April 2014||Trusty Tahr||LTS-version|
|14.10||20 October 2014||Utopic Unicorn|
|15.04||23 April 2015||Vivid Vervet|
|15.10||22 October 2015||Wily werewolf|
|16.04||21 April 2016||Xenial Xerus||LTS-version|
LTS indicates Long Term Support.
Ubuntu's official software package repository includes, for example, UNetbootin.
Because there are several options for which desktop environment to use, Ubuntu is available in many different variants.
The official sister distributions which are fully supported by Canonical are:
- Kubuntu, a desktop distribution using KDE rather than Unity
- Edubuntu, a distribution designed for classrooms using Unity
- Ubuntu Server Edition
Derivatives that are recognized but not supported by Canonical are:
- Xubuntu, a "lightweight" distribution based on the Xfce desktop environment instead of GNOME, designed to run better on low-specification computers
- Mythbuntu, a multimedia platform based on MythTV
- Ubuntu Studio, a multimedia-creation form of Ubuntu
Ubuntu Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.