Hanford, California facts for kids(Redirected from History of Hanford, California)
|City of Hanford|
Location in Kings County and the state of California
|Incorporated||August 12, 1891|
|• Total||16.589 sq mi (42.966 km2)|
|• Land||16.589 sq mi (42.966 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2) 0%|
|Elevation||249 ft (76 m)|
|• Density||3,366.1/sq mi (1,299.63/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|ZIP codes||93230, 93232|
|GNIS feature ID||1660714|
Hanford is an important commercial and cultural center in the south central San Joaquin Valley and is the county seat of Kings County, California. It is the principal city of the Hanford-Corcoran metropolitan area (MSA Code 25260), which encompasses all of Kings County, including the cities of Hanford and Corcoran. The ZIP Code is 93230 (93232 for post office boxes). The city of Hanford is surrounded by communities that do not fall within the city limits but use the same zip code. These communities include Grangeville, Hardwick and Home Garden.
The population was 53,967 at the 2010 census. The California Department of Finance estimated that the city's population was 55,840 as of January 1, 2016.
- Sister city
- Sites of interest
Hanford is located at San Joaquin Valley, 28 miles (45 km) south-southeast of the city of Fresno and 18 miles (29 km) west of the city of Visalia. The city is 249 feet (76 m) above sea level and has a flat terrain. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.6 square miles (43 km2), none of which is covered by water. The only natural watercourse is Mussel Slough, remnants of which still exist on the city's western edge. The Kings River is about 6.5 miles (10.5 km) north of Hanford. The People's Ditch, an irrigation canal dug in the 1870s, traverses Hanford from north to south.(36.3275, −119.6457). It is situated in the south central portion of California's
|Weather chart for Hanford, California|
|temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches
source: Weather.com / NWS
Hanford has a climate typical of that of the San Joaquin Valley floor with hot, dry summers and cool winters characterized by dense Tule fog. The wetter season occurs from November through March. The average annual rainfall over the ten years from 1997/98 through 2006/07 was 8.97 inches (228 mm). The 30-year normal precipitation (1971–2000) is 8.29 inches.
-On average, the warmest month is July with a high of 97.9F and a low of 62.4F.
-The highest recorded temperature was 116 °F (47 °C) on July 27, 1933.
-On average, the coolest month is December with a high of 55.4F and a low of 34.6F.
-The lowest recorded temperature was 14 °F (−10 °C) on January 6, 1913.
-There are an average of 105.2 days with highs of 90F (32C) or higher.
-There are an average of 38.6 days with lows of 32F (0C) or lower.
-The maximum normal precipitation (based on the 30-year average) occurs in January with 1.59 inches.
-The wettest year was 1983 with 15.57 inches.
-The driest year was 1953 with 3.37 inches.
-The most rainfall in one month was 6.69 inches in January 1969.
-The most rainfall in 24 hours was 2.44 inches on February 10, 1978.
-The record snowfall was 2.0 inches on January 21, 1962.
The National Weather Service Forecast Office for the San Joaquin Valley is located in Hanford and includes a Doppler weather radar. Weather forecasts and climatological information for Hanford and the surrounding area are available from its official website.
The Hanford area was inhabited by the Tachi Yokut Indians for several thousand years prior to Euro-American contact. They occupied areas along watercourses such as creeks, springs and seep areas (such as sloughs), along perennial and seasonal drainages, as well as flat ridges and terraces. Therefore, the areas along streams are considered likely locations for prehistoric cultural resources. Permanent villages were usually placed on an elevation above the seasonal flood levels. Surrounding areas were used for hunting and seed, acorn, and grass gathering.
Hanford is named for James Madison Hanford, a railroad executive, after the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks were laid through a sheep camp in the year 1877. According to History of Kings County: "It was but a short step from sheep-camp to village and with the railroad as an attraction the village flourished and became a town within a few historic months."
In 1880, a dispute over land titles between settlers and the Southern Pacific Railroad resulted in a bloody gun battle on a farm 5.6 mi (9.0 km) northwest of Hanford that left seven men dead. This event became famous as the Mussel Slough Tragedy.
A post office was set up in 1887.
Several times, major fires destroyed much of the young community's business district. The need for fire protection led to the town becoming an incorporated city in 1891. Its first mayor was local resident Yamon LeBaron.
An electrical generating plant was built in 1891 by pioneering flour miller H.G. Lacey, bringing the first electric lights to the city. The Lacey Milling Company was still operating in Hanford in 2016.
The first public high school, Hanford Union High School, was started in 1892 with one teacher, W. S. Cranmer, and an average enrollment of fourteen.
When Kings County was created in 1893 from the western part of Tulare County, Hanford became its county seat.
A second railroad was laid through Hanford in 1897, which today is the main north-south line of the BNSF Railway through the San Joaquin Valley. The original east-west Southern Pacific Railroad branch line is now operated by the San Joaquin Valley Railroad.
In 1901, a restaurant called the Star opened on Sixth Street across from the Southern Pacific tracks. The Star Restaurant was still doing business at the same location in 2017.
Saloons flourished in Hanford's early days despite an anti-saloon movement until the town voted to become "dry" in 1912, eight years before nationwide Prohibition in the United States took effect.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Hanford had a population of 53,967. The population density was 3,253.1 people per square mile (1,256.0/km²). The racial makeup of Hanford was 33,713 (62.5%) White, 2,632 (4.9%) African American, 712 (1.3%) Native American, 2,322 (4.3%) Asian, 53 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 11,599 (21.5%) from other races, and 2,936 (5.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25,419 persons (47.1%).
The Census reported that 69,690 people (98.3% of the population) lived in households, 283 (0.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 616 (1.1%) were institutionalized.
There were 17,492 households, out of which 8,053 (46.0%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 9,088 (52.0%) were married couples living together, 2,833 (16.2%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,207 (6.9%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,315 (7.5%) unmarried partnerships, and 117 (0.7%) same-sex partnerships. 3,483 households (19.9%) were made up of individuals and 1,405 (8.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03. There were 13,128 families (75.1% of all households); the average family size was 3.49.
The population was spread out with 16,731 people (31.0%) under the age of 18, 5,478 people (10.2%) aged 18 to 24, 14,764 people (27.4%) aged 25 to 44, 11,647 people (21.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 5,347 people (9.9%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.9 years. For every 100 females there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males.
There were 18,493 housing units at an average density of 1,114.8 per square mile (430.4/km²), of which 10,208 (58.4%) were owner-occupied, and 7,284 (41.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.6%. 31,109 people (57.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 21,959 people (40.7%) lived in rental housing units.
15.5% of the populace lived below the poverty line.
As of the 2000 census, there were 41,686 people, 13,931 households, and 10,378 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,184.4 people per square mile (1,229.6/km²). There were 14,721 housing units at an average density of 1,124.5 per square mile (434.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.1% White, 5.0% Black or African American, 1.4% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 20.8% from other races, and 5.7% from two or more races. 38.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Foreign-born residents accounted for 13.2% of Hanford's population and 28.3% spoke a language other than English at home.
There were 13,931 households out of which 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.5% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the city, the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.
The Hanford Municipal Airport serves general aviation and has a 5,175 ft (1,577 m) paved runway.
Kings Area Rural Transit (KART) operates regularly scheduled fixed route bus service, vanpool service for commuters and Dial-A-Ride (demand response) services throughout Kings County as well as to Fresno. Hanford is also served by the Orange Belt Stages.
Existing: Amtrak provides passenger rail service from Hanford station to the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento, and service to Southern California by a combination of rail and bus. Freight service is available from both the BNSF Railway and the San Joaquin Valley Railroad.
Proposed: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009-funded California High-Speed Rail has proposed a station. However, the proposed station on the eastern outskirts of Hanford is listed as "optional" and will not be built without matching local funds or in-kind support. Greg Gatzka, Kings County's Community Development Director, was quoted in a June 2011 newspaper story that "the real question is whether high-speed rail is going to authorize a station there. They have a priority list and this station is at the bottom of the list."
The city's water system is supplied by a network of 13 deep wells ranging in depth from 600 to 1,700 feet with 203 miles of main lines and serves 15,900 water connections.
Formerly, the water had contained naturally occurring arsenic in excess of the maximum contaminant level adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, according to the Consumer Confidence Report issued by the city of Hanford in March 2010 for calendar year 2009, as of November 11, 2009, the city now supplies water that is below the federal standard of 10 micrograms of arsenic per liter of water. The city's mitigation project consisted of reducing the arsenic content in two existing deep water wells, drilling five replacement wells, and eliminating eight wells that produced water that exceeded standards.
Although it does not pose a health hazard, Hanford's drinking water also naturally contains hydrogen sulfide, which caused the water to have a noticeable "rotten egg" odor. In 2014, the city began chlorinating its water for the first time, which eliminates the hydrogen sulfide odor. In February 2015, the city completed a project to chlorinate all of its water.
The city's sanitary sewer system consists of 212 mi (341 km) of collector lines and 22 pump stations.
The wastewater treatment plant is located in the southern part of the city on Houston Avenue and treats 5 million gallons of sewage per day. The treated effluent is used to irrigate non-food crops.
Electricity and gas
Southern California Edison provides electricity to most of Hanford. However, the industrial park area in the southernmost part of the city is served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
Natural gas is supplied by the Southern California Gas Company.
Telephone and cable television
Telephone service is provided by AT&T. Comcast has the cable TV franchise for Hanford.
The Clark Center for Japanese Art and Culture
The former Clark Center had the mission of collecting, preserving and exhibiting works of fine art, primarily the arts of Japan. The Center also housed a specialist library for Japanese art and culture. The Clark Center closed permanently on June 30, 2015. The art collection was moved to the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the bonsai collection was transferred to the Shinzen Friendship Garden at Woodward Park in Fresno, California.
Hanford Carnegie Museum
The Hanford Carnegie Museum was built in 1905 as one of the many Carnegie libraries that were funded by the steel industry magnate, Andrew Carnegie. The library was replaced by a new structure at a different location in 1968. The old library was subsequently renovated and re-opened as the Hanford Carnegie Museum in 1975. The building is of Romanesque architecture with displays of furniture and photos describing the history of the Hanford area.
Kings District Fair
The Kings District Fair is a traditional county fair held on four days in mid-June at the Kings Fairgrounds.
Renaissance of Kings Cultural Arts Faire
The Renaissance of Kings Cultural Arts Faire is held the first weekend of October at Courthouse Square in Hanford's city center. The Faire recreates the period of time during the reign of King Henry VIII of England. There is no admission charge and the event typically attracts 15,000 people over the two-day period. The event was cancelled in 2012 but returned in 2013.
Kings Art Center
The Kings Art Center was opened in 1989 to be the premier visual arts gallery and art training center of Kings County. Gallery shows are changed approximately every four weeks. Typical shows include photography, pottery, water color, mixed media, prints, textiles and fibers. Art classes for adults and children are scheduled throughout the year.
Kings Symphony Orchestra
The Kings Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1963 and draws musicians from throughout the central and southern San Joaquin Valley. The orchestra generally performs four times a year with a variety of classical and "pops" repertoire.
Hanford in literature
William Saroyan's short story, "The Journey to Hanford" that appeared in My Name Is Aram is a comic account of two characters from Fresno – a boy and his wastrel uncle – who share a single bicycle as they travel the approximately thirty-mile route between Fresno and Hanford, taking along a sack of rice to feed them through what turns out to be a largely pointless summer.
Hanford's Chinese community
Chinese immigrants arrived in the late 19th century to build railroads and work on farms. They created a thriving Chinatown in Hanford in the neighborhood around China Alley. China Alley was the site of the famous but now closed Imperial Dynasty restaurant. Hanford's Taoist Temple (listed on the National Register of Historic Places) built in 1893 is also located there. A Moon Festival is held in China Alley in early October. In July 2011, Hanford city council commissioned a study of China Alley with the hope of revitalizing it in the future.
Hanford's Black community
While the black community has long played an important role in the city, the City of Hanford only began to celebrate Martin Luther King, Jr. Day on January 15, 2007 after a long battle led by the local branch of the NAACP. The City Council then recognized the day as an official holiday with a resolution honoring Dr. King, read by then Mayor Joaquin Gonzales. The most prominent African-Americans living in the community include Chris Jordan, almost 30-year veteran City of Hanford Police Captain, then elected in 2006 as the first black Sheriff of Kings County. The late civil rights activist, Wanda Williams-Hinton, turned the Black History Month celebration into an annual citywide tradition; that has since been carried on by community leader Gerry Young.
Hanford is a sister city with Setana, a small town on Hokkaido, Japan. The program is known for promoting international friendship. Both cities send a delegate group of both prominent city citizens and high school students. For the city of Hanford, high school students are selected from both high schools through an application and interview process for delegate spots. The Setana high school provides a student delegate position for their entire upper class. Hanford delegates travel to Setana, Japan in the summer. Setana delegates travel to Hanford in the winter.
Sites of interest
- The Hanford Fox Theatre was constructed in 1929 and is located on Irwin Street in Hanford's city center. It is regularly used for live concerts. Featured artists in 2006 and 2007 included the Charlie Daniels Band, Dwight Yoakam, Kathy Griffin and George Jones. In the past, the Hanford Fox Theater hosted benefit performances by Bob Hope, Red Skelton and John Denver.
- The Kings County Courthouse was erected after Kings County was formed; it opened in 1896. Constructed in an eclectic mix of styles in a park in the center of Hanford, it was expanded in 1914. The building served as the county's courthouse until 1976 when it was replaced by the new Kings County Government Center on West Lacey Boulevard. The old courthouse was remodeled in the early 1980s and now houses offices, small shops and restaurants.
- The building now known as The Bastille just north of the old courthouse was the Kings County Jail from 1898 until 1964. Constructed in Romanesque style, it is notable for its crenellated octagonal tower. It is currently closed down and boarded up.
- Superior Dairy is a classic 1920s ice cream parlor that is well known in the Hanford area. The business makes all of its ice cream on-site. Superior Dairy is across the street from the Civic Auditorium and The Bastille.
- Fort Roosevelt was a well-known environmental education and wildlife rehabilitation center located at the Roosevelt Elementary School until it was closed and demolished in 2005.
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