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John III
D. João III - Cristóvão Lopes (attrib).png
Portrait of John III attributed to Cristóvão Lopes, after a 1552 original by Anthonis Mor
King of Portugal
Reign 13 December 1521 – 11 June 1557
Acclamation 19 December 1521
Predecessor Manuel I
Successor Sebastian
Born 7 June 1502
Alcáçova Palace, Lisbon
Died 11 June 1557(1557-06-11) (aged 55)
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon
Burial Jerónimos Monastery
Catherine of Austria (m. 1525)
among others...
Maria Manuela, Princess of Asturias
João Manuel, Prince of Portugal
House Aviz
Father Manuel I of Portugal
Mother Maria of Aragon
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature John III's signature

John III (Portuguese: João III 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) nicknamed The Pious (Portuguese: "o Piedoso") was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. John succeeded his father in 1521 at the age of nineteen.

During his rule Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India (such as Goa) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands, resulting in what John III has been called: the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire had a global dimension and spanned almost 4 million square kilometres (1.5 million square miles).

During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China (under the Ming dynasty) and Japan (during the Muromachi period). He abandoned the Muslim territories in North Africa in favor of the trade with India and investments in Brazil. In Europe he improved relations with the Baltic region and the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade.

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