Lisbon facts for kids

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Lisbon (Lisboa)
Capital
Poster Lisbon.jpg
Flag of Lisboa.svg
Flag
LSB.png
Symbol
Official name: Mui Nobre e Sempre Leal Cidade de Lisboa
Name origin: Lisboa, Portuguese derivative of the Phoenician Allis Ubbo for safe harbour; Latin Ulyssippo after Ulysses; and/or Roman Olissipona, for the name of the Tagus
Nickname: A Cidade das Sete Colinas (The City of Seven Hills), Rainha do Mar (Queen of the Sea), A Cidade da Tolerância (The City of Tolerance)
Country Portugal
NUTS II Region Lisboa Region
NUTS III Subregion Greater Lisbon
District Lisbon
Municipality Lisbon
Civil Parishes (see text)
River Tagus River
Location Lisbon
 - elevation m (7 ft)
 - coordinates Missing latitude in Module:Coordinates.formatTest()
Highest point 227 m
 - location Serra de Monsanto, Benfica, Lisbon
 - elevation 199 m (653 ft)
 - coordinates Missing latitude in Module:Coordinates.formatTest()
Lowest point Sea level
 - location Atlantic Ocean
 - elevation m (0 ft)
Area 100.05 km² (39 sq mi)
 - urban 958 km² (370 sq mi)
 - metro 2,957 km² (1,142 sq mi)
Population 552,700 (2011)
 - urban 3,051,000
 - metro 3,035,000
Density 6,458 /km² (16,726 /sq mi)
Settlement fl. 719
 - City c. 1256
LAU Concelho/Câmara Municipal
 - location Praça do Município, Lisbon, Grande Lisboa
 - elevation 33 m (108 ft)
 - coordinates Missing latitude in Module:Coordinates.formatTest()
President António Costa (Socialist Party)
Municipal Chair Helena Roseta (Socialist Party (Portugal)
Timezone WET (UTC0)
 - summer (DST) WEST (UTC+1)
Postal Zone 1149-014 Lisboa
Area Code & Prefix (+351) 21 XXX-XXXX
Demonym Lisboeta or Alfacinha
Patron Saint São Vicente e Santo António de Lisboa
Municipal Address Praça do Município, 1
1149-014 Lisboa
Location of the municipality of Lisbon in Portugal
Location of the municipality of Lisbon in Portugal
Wikimedia Commons: Lisbon
Website: http://www.cm-lisboa.pt/

Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal. It is the largest city of Portugal. The city has a population of about two million people. Lisbon is 11th most populous urban area in the European Union. Lisbon is on the River Tagus. It has a pleasant climate and has about 220 days of sunshine each year. There are many beautiful beaches close to the city. There are also many seafood restaurants, historical sites and monuments. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world.

Geography

Physical geography

Vista de Lisboa
Partial view of Lisbon, looking towards the Tagus River.

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, situated at the mouth of the Tagus River and is the westernmost capital of a mainland European country.

The westernmost part of Lisbon is occupied by the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (English: Monsanto Forest Park), a 10 km2 (4 sq mi) urban park, one of the largest in Europe, and occupying ten percent of the municipality.

The city occupies an area of 100.05 km2 (39 sq mi), and its city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, coincide with those of the municipality. The rest of the urbanised area of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, known generically as Greater Lisbon (Portuguese: Grande Lisboa), extends to the city of Setúbal and includes several administratively defined cities and municipalities, such as Amadora, Queluz, Agualva-Cacém, Odivelas, Loures, Sacavém, Almada, Barreiro, Seixal and Oeiras

Climate

Lisbon has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with mild, rainy winters and warm to hot, dry summers. The average annual temperature is 17.4 °C (63.3 °F), 21.3 °C (70.3 °F) during the day and 13.5 °C (56.3 °F) at night.

In the coldest month – January – the highest temperature during the day typically ranges from 10 to 18 °C (50 to 64 °F), the lowest temperature at night ranges from 3 to 13 °C (37 to 55 °F) and the average sea temperature is 16 °C (61 °F). In the warmest month – August – the highest temperature during the day typically ranges from 25 to 32 °C (77 to 90 °F), the lowest temperature at night ranges from 14 to 20 °C (57 to 68 °F) and the average sea temperature is 20 °C (68 °F).

Among European cities with a population above 500,000, Lisbon has one of the warmest winters (less than Valencia or Málaga) and one of the mildest night time temperatures, from an average of 8.3 °C (46.9 °F) in the coldest month, and 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in the warmest month. The minimum temperature recorded in Lisbon was −1.2 °C (30 °F) in February 1956 and −1 °C (30 °F) in January 1985. The maximum temperature recorded in Lisbon was 42 °C (108 °F) on 1 August 2003.

Culture

Torre Belém April 2009-4a
The Belém Tower, one of the most famous and visited landmarks in Lisbon and throughout Portugal.

The city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; Romanesque, Gothic, Manueline, Baroque, Modern and Postmodern constructions can be found all over Lisbon. The city is also crossed by historical boulevards and monuments along the main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the Avenida da Liberdade (Avenue of Liberty), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante Reis and Avenida da República (Avenue of the Republic).

There are several substantial museums in the city. The most famous ones are the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art), the National Azulejo Museum, the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian (Calouste Gulbenkian Museum), containing varied collections of ancient and modern art, the Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda (National Museum of Costume and Fashion), the Berardo Collection Museum (Modern Art) at the Belém Cultural Center, the Museu da Electricidade (Electricity Museum), the Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum, containing the largest collection of royal coaches in the world), the National Museum of Natural History and Science, Museum of the Orient, and the Lisbon City Museum.

Lisbon's Opera House, the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the Centro Cultural de Belém, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II, the Gulbenkian Foundation, and the Teatro Camões.

Rossio - Praca Dom Pedro IV
D. Maria II National Theatre, located in the Rossio Square, is one of Portugal's most prestigious venues.

The monument to Christ the King (Cristo-Rei) stands on the southern bank of the Tagus River, in Almada. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in Rio de Janeiro, and was built after World War II, as a memorial of thanksgiving for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war.

13 June is Lisbon´s holiday in honour of the city's saint, Anthony of Lisbon (Portuguese: Santo António). Saint Anthony, also known as Saint Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was canonised and made Doctor of the Church after a life preaching to the poor. Although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent of Saragossa, whose remains are housed in the Sé Cathedral, there are no festivities associated with this saint.

Lisbon 2015 10 14 0648 (23515641921)
The National Coach Museum has the largest collection of royal carriages in the world and is one of Lisbon's most visited institutions.

Eduardo VII Park, the second largest park in the city following the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (Monsanto Forest Park), extends down the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade), with many flowering plants and greenspaces, that includes the permanent collection of subtropical and tropical plants in the winter garden (Portuguese: Estufa Fria). Originally named Parque da Liberdade, it was renamed in honour of Edward VII of England who visited Lisbon in 1903.

Lisbon is home every year to the Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival, the Lisboarte, the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival, the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Monstra – Animated Film Festival, the Lisbon Book Fair, the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon Fish and Flavours, and many others.

Lisbon has two sites listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site: Belém Tower and Jerónimos Monastery. Furthermore, in 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture and in 1998 organised the Expo '98 (1998 Lisbon World Exposition).

The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is one of the wealthiest foundations in the world and houses one of the largest private collections of antiquaries and art in the world, within the Gulbenkian Museum.

Lisbon is also home to the Lisbon Architecture Triennial, the Moda Lisboa (Fashion Lisbon), ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design and LuzBoa – Biennial of Light.

In addition, the mosaic Portuguese pavement (Calçada Portuguesa) was born in Lisbon, in the mid-1800s. The art has since spread to the rest of the Portuguese Speaking world. The city remains one of the most expansive examples of the technique, nearly all walkways and even many streets being created and maintained in this style.

In terms of Portuguese cities, Lisbon was considered the most livable in a survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso.

In May 2018, the city hosted the 63rd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, after the victory of Salvador Sobral with the song "Amar pelos dois" in Kiyv on May 13, 2017.

Economy

Porto de Lisboa (2)
The Port of Lisbon, one of the busiest in Europe.

The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the European Union's GDP per capita average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa Subregion, specially in the Oeiras municipality. The Lisbon Metropolitan Area is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the Tagus river (Rio Tejo).

The Lisbon region is rapidly growing, with GDP (PPP) per capita calculated for each year as follows: €22,745 (2004) – €23,816 (2005) – €25,200 (2006) – €26,100 (2007). The Lisbon metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $96.3 billion, and $32,434 per capita.

The country's chief seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings are also developing as an important financial centre and a dynamic technological hub. Automobile manufacturers have erected factories in the suburbs, for example, AutoEuropa.

Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media sector of Portugal, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations to major newspapers.

Caixa Geral de Depósitos (CGD) (3779646223)
The Caixa Geral de Depósitos is Portugal's largest bank.

The Euronext Lisbon stock exchange, part of the pan-European Euronext system together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, is tied with the New York Stock Exchange since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext group of stock exchanges.

Lisbonite industry has very large sectors in oil, as refineries are found just across the Tagus, textile mills, shipyards and fishing.

Transport

Tram 28, Lisbon, 20051011
Lisbon’s iconic electric trams crossing in the downtown area.

Metro

The Lisbon Metro connects the city centre with the upper and eastern districts and also reaches some suburbs that are part of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, such as Amadora and Loures. It is the fastest way to get around the city and it provides a good number of interchanging stations with other types of transportation. From the Lisbon Airport station to the city centre it may take roughly 25 mins. As of 2018, the Lisbon Metro comprises four lines, identified by individual colours (blue, yellow, green and red) and 56 stations, with a total length of 44.2 km. Several expansion projects have been proposed, being the most recent the transformation of the Green Line into a circular line and the creation of two more stations (Santos and Estrela).

Trams

A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon is the tram. Introduced in the 19th century, the trams were originally imported from the USA, and called the americanos. The earliest trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport Museum). Other than on the modern Line 15, the Lisbon tramway system still employs small (four wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central city.

Alfa Pendular 127, Gare do Oriente, 2011.04.21
Gare do Oriente train station is an intermodal station that links the Lisbon metro with the city's Carris buses as well as outstation bus and train lines.

Trains

There are four commuter train lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra and Azambuja lines (operated by CP – Comboios de Portugal), as well as a fourth line to Setúbal (operated by Fertagus) crossing the Tagus river, over the 25 de Abril Bridge. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia, Rossio, Gare do Oriente, Entrecampos, and Cais do Sodré.

Buses

Local bus service within Lisbon is operated by Carris.

There are other commuter bus services from the city (connecting cities outside Lisbon, and connecting these cities to Lisbon): Vimeca, Rodoviária de Lisboa, Transportes Sul do Tejo, Boa Viagem, Barraqueiro are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city.

Lisbon is connected to its suburbs as well as throughout Portugal by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the IC17 (CRIL), and the A9 (CREL).

Bridges and ferries

Lisbon Bridge
The 25 de Abril Bridge carries 6 vehicular lanes and 2 train lines over the Tagus river connecting Lisbon with Almada.

The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges:

  • The 25 de Abril Bridge, inaugurated (as Ponte Salazar) on 6 August 1966, and later renamed after the date of the Carnation Revolution, was the longest suspension bridge in Europe.
  • The Vasco da Gama Bridge, inaugurated in May 1998 is, at 17.2 km (10.7 mi), the longest bridge in Europe.

The foundations for a third bridge across the Tagus have already been laid, but the overall project has been postponed due to the economic crisis in Portugal and all of Europe.

Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The company is Transtejo & Soflusa, which operates from different points in the city to Cacilhas, Seixal, Montijo, Porto Brandão and Trafaria under the brand Transtejo and to Barreiro under the brand Soflusa.

Air travel

Humberto Delgado Airport is located within the city limits. It is the headquarters and hub for TAP Portugal as well as a hub for Easyjet, Azores Airlines, Ryanair, EuroAtlantic Airways, White Airways, and Hi Fly. A second airport has been proposed, but the project has been put on hold because of the Portuguese and European economic crisis, and also because of the long discussion on whether a new airport is needed. However, the last proposal is military air base in Montijo that would be replaced by a civil airport. So, Lisbon would have two airports, the current airport in north and a new in the south of the city.

Cascais Aerodrome, 20 km West of the city centre, in Cascais, offers commercial domestic flights.

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