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Millom
Millom Castle and Holy Trinity Church - geograph.org.uk - 540503.jpg
Millom Castle and Holy Trinity Church
Millom shown within Cumbria
Population 7,829 (2011)
OS grid reference SD172802
Civil parish
  • Millom
District
  • Copeland
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town MILLOM
Postcode district LA18
Dialling code 01229
Police Cumbria
Fire Cumbria
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament
  • Copeland
List of places
UK
England
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Millom is a town and civil parish on the north shore of the estuary of the River Duddon around 7 miles north of Barrow-in-Furness in southwest Cumbria, England. Millom was constructed as a new town, beginning in 1866 and subsumed the village of Holborn Hill. Built around ironworks, the town grew to a size of over 10,000 people by the 1960s, but has struggled since the works were closed in 1968. Culturally, Millom is notable as the birthplace of poet Norman Nicholson, and as a major centre of amateur rugby league.

The name is Cumbrian dialect for "At the mills". The town is accessible both by rail and an A class road. Historically in Cumberland, the parish had a population of 7,829 in 2011 and is divided into four wards, Holborn Hill, Newtown North, Newtown South and Haverigg.

History

Millom is mentioned in the Domesday Book as one of the townships forming the Manor of Hougun which was held by Tostig Godwinson, Earl of Northumbria.

Millom Castle is a grade I listed building and scheduled ancient monument which by 1739 was in dilapidated condition.

In 1251 a market charter was granted by King Henry III of England to John de Huddleston, Lord of Millom. A charter for an Easter fair at Holy Trinity Church was also granted at the same time.

Millom is the most southerly town in the historic county of Cumberland.

The Whitehaven & Furness Junction Railway opened a station here in 1850 known as 'Holborn Hill Halt', until Millom newtown was built in 1866. It was taken over by the Furness Railway in 1866.

A map of 1862 shows that all that existed here was a small hamlet by the name of Holborn Hill on the northwest side of the railway line. It had a railway station, inn and a tile and brick works. By 1899 a small town had grown up here, with terraced streets on either side of the railway, a public library, police station, banks, hotels, school, market square and allotments.

In the intervening years, the Hodbarrow iron mines began extracting haematite from deposits between the village of Holborn Hill and the seashore at Hodbarrow. The first shafts were sunk in the 1850s, by 1881 there were seven pits operated by the Hodbarrow Mining Company. Millom & Askam Iron Company built Millom Ironworks and the first furnaces were completed in 1866. The opening of the iron works lead to the building of Millom newtown. The Hodbarrow Outer Barrier (sea wall) was completed in 1905 to protect the mines from the sea. It took five years to construct at a cost of almost £600,000. The Hodbarrow Mines and Millom Ironworks were closed in 1968. The town's population of 10,997 in 1967 fell to 7,101 by the 1971 census.

In 1877 the expanding town needed more water and Whicham Beck was dammed at Baystone Bank (54.261226,-3.274237) to form Baystone Bank Reservoir. The reservoir remained in use until about 1996. It was drained in 2011, the dam removed and the valley returned to its original form. This work was carried out by water network company United Utilities.

During the Second World War an airfield, RAF Millom, was developed on flat coastal land at Haverigg. This was an advanced flying training station, mainly for Observers and also Air Gunners. Aircraft stationed there were firstly the Blackburn Botha and Fairey Battle, then the more popular and successful Avro Anson. Post-war this became the site of HM Prison Haverigg.

Throughout its history, the town has struggled with socio-economic problems, especially after the Industrial Revolution, thus being infamously called by the Mayor of Copeland, 'a place of despair'. However it was noted that the people who came to work in the mines in the late 1800s endured poor living conditions on the marshes that later became Millom New Town, with great fortitude and good humour. To this day Millomites exhibit the same attributes as their forefathers.

Culture and community

Millom Palladium (a theatre, bar and full multi-functional venue) is a historic part of the town. Completed in 1911, it has stood on the site for over 100 years. This locally treasured building and entertainments venue is home to Millom Amateur Operatic Society (MAOS) founded in 1909 and is currently an ongoing project run and managed by a registered charity and group of volunteers with hopes to re-instate the cinema facility within the building. The facility currently hosts pantomime and music events and can be hired for weddings, balls, private parties etc. It has a full in-house 30KW PA with independent on stage monitor mixing and a full theatre lighting system.

The Beggar's Theatre is a multi-function arts base with several activities, performing-arts based, for local talent and provides a venue for touring theatres, stand-up comedians etc. Run by Jakki Moore, the venue also offers a series of drama, dance and drumming workshops for children. They put on a summer arts festival every year.

Millom Network Centre, based in the grounds of Millom School, offers adult education, business and public meeting space and other business services.

The Norman Nicholson Society promotes and explores the work of the town's most famous son, the writer Norman Nicholson, who spent his whole life in the town.

The town also has organisations providing services for the elderly in a number of venues. A number of sports organisations operate in the town; notably rugby and cricket as well as a thriving judo club. For the less physically active, a chess club exists as does a Scrabble club although both of these are currently dormant; lacking enthusiastic players.

Landmarks

Hodbarrow Point Lighthouse
Haverigg
Old lighthouse, Hodbarrow - geograph.org.uk - 540401.jpg
The older of two lighthouses at Hodbarrow

Cumbria

Location Millom
Cumbria
England
Coordinates Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:mw' not found.
Year first constructed 1866 (first)
Year first lit 1905 (current) restored 2003
Deactivated 1905 (first)
1949–2003 (current)
Construction stone tower (first)
cast iron tower (current)
Tower shape cylindrical tower with balcony and embattled top, light from a window (first)
cylindrical tower with balcony and lantern (current)
Markings / pattern unpainted tower (first)
white tower and lantern, red lower band
Height 18 metres (59 ft) (first)
9 metres (30 ft) (current)
Focal height 12 metres (39 ft)
Characteristic Fl W 4s.
Admiralty number A4805
ARLHS number ENG-193 (first)
ENG-054 (current)

St. George's Church stands proud within the town on a small hill and with its steeple is the biggest landmark of the town being visible from quite a distance.

The area's bigger landmark is the significant hill of Black Combe standing 1,970 ft (600 m) above sea level. It forms a grand panoramic viewing platform of the south west Lake District area and offers view of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales – but only on a clear day.

Millom Discovery Centre (previously known as 'Millom Folk Museum' and 'Millom Heritage Museum And Visitor Centre') presents a snapshot of past times in Millom, paying particular attention to the historical development of the area brought about by the significant iron ore mining and iron works.

Millom Rock Park is situated high on the north rim of the nearby Ghyll Scaur Quarry in the parish of Millom Without. A viewpoint in the Rock Park permits views into the working quarry and overlooks the processing machinery. There is an avenue of 15 large rock specimens with detailed interpretation panels.

There are two nature reserves near the town, both of which are located on the Duddon Estuary; an internationally important area for wildlife and designated a 'Site of Special Scientific Interest' or SSSI. Hodbarrow Nature Reserve is owned by the RSPB and is located to the south of the town, which in October 2005, saw the unveiling of its new public aid, with logos produced by local artists Stuart Edwards and Holly Parminter. Millom Iron Works Local Nature Reserve is located to the east of the town. Both reserves are important for tern species and a number of wading birds and waterfowl. Hodbarrow is renowned for large numbers of wildfowl during the winter. Various birds of prey can be seen hunting on both reserves throughout the year.

In 1866 the Hodbarrow Mining Company built a lighthouse on Hodbarrow Point to guide ships to its dock. When the company built a sea wall in 1905 to protect its mineworkings, it established a new lighthouse on the wall and abandoned the old one. Both structures still stand; indeed the newer lighthouse (which had itself been abandoned in 1949) was in 2004 refurbished and relit as part of a local community initiative.

RAF Millom Museum closed in 2010.

Transport

Millom Railway Station
Millom railway station

Millom is served by Millom railway station on the Cumbrian Coast Line. The A5093 road goes through the town and is itself a loop off of the A595. The town council supports the building of a road bridge across the Duddon estuary between Millom and the Furness peninsula.

Religious sites

St George's Church, Millom
St George's Church, Millom

Millom's original parish church is Holy Trinity, a grade I listed building dating to the 12th century. In 1877 the growth of the town required the building of another church and architects Paley and Austin were commissioned to build St George's, a grade II listed building. There are also Roman Catholic, Baptist and Methodist churches and a community church. The Jehovah's Witnesses also have a Kingdom Hall in the town. Places of worship map


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