Neornithes facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Bird Diversity 2013
Examples of various avian orders.
Row 1: Red-crested turaco, shoebill, white-tailed tropicbird
Row 2: Steller's sea eagle, grey crowned crane, common peafowl
Row 3: Great hornbill, Anna's hummingbird, Atlantic puffin
Row 4: Southern cassowary, rainbow lorikeet, American flamingo
Row 5: Gentoo penguin, grey heron, blue-footed booby
Row 6: Bar-throated minla, Eurasian eagle-owl, keel-billed toucan

The Neornithes are the modern birds. These are the most recent common ancestor of all living birds and all its descendants. There are about 9 to 10,000 known living bird species in the world.

Taxonomy

Modern birds are divided into two superorders; the Palaeognathae (tinamous and flightless ratites), and the Neognathae, containing all other birds.

It is generally agreed that the Neornithes evolved in the Cretaceous and that the split between the Palaeognathae and Neognathae, and then the split between fowl and the other Neognathae, occurred before the K/T extinction event. The earliest fossil remains of the Neornithes might be about ten million years after the start of the Cretaceous. Gallornis may be the first fossil, but its remains are only a worn partial femur and a fragment of the humerus.

There are different opinions about whether the radiation of the remaining neognathes occurred before or after the extinction of the other dinosaurs. Molecular dating suggests a Cretaceous radiation, while fossil evidence suggest an early Tertiary radiation. Attempts made to bring together the molecular and fossil evidence have proved controversial.

Classification of bird orders

Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Prum, R.O. et al. (2015) with some clade names after Yuri, T. et al. (2013).

Aves
Palaeognathae

Struthioniformes (ostriches)Struthio camelus - Etosha 2014 (1) white background.jpg


Notopalaeognathae

Rheiformes (rheas)Rhea white background.jpg



Novaeratitae


Casuariiformes (cassowaries & emus)Casuario australiano white background.JPG




Apterygiformes (kiwi)Little spotted kiwi, Apteryx owenii, Auckland War Memorial Museum white background.jpg



†Aepyornithiformes (elephant birds)Elephant bird skeleton.png







Tinamiformes (tinamous)NothuraDarwiniiSmit white background.jpg



†Dinornithiformes (moa)Giant moa skeleton.jpg






Neognathae

Galloanserae

Galliformes (chickens and relatives) Red Junglefowl by George Edward Lodge white background.png



Anseriformes (ducks and relatives) Cuvier-97-Canard colvert.jpg



Neoaves

Strisores

Caprimulgiformes (nightjars)






Steatornithiformes (oilbird)



Nyctibiiformes (potoos)






Podargiformes (frogmouths)



Apodiformes (swifts and hummingbirds)Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg








Columbaves
Otidimorphae

Musophagiformes (turacos)Planches enluminées d'histoire naturelle (1765) (Tauraco persa).jpg




Otidiformes (bustards)Cayley Ardeotis australis flipped.jpg



Cuculiformes (cuckoos)British birds in their haunts (Cuculus canorus).jpg




Columbimorphae

Columbiformes (pigeons) Meyers grosses Konversations-Lexikon - ein Nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen Wissens (1908) (Antwerpener Breiftaube).jpg




Mesitornithiformes (mesites)Monias benschi 1912 white background.jpg



Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouse)Pterocles quadricinctus white background.jpg








Gruiformes (rails and cranes)Cuvier-72-Grue cendrée.jpg



Aequorlitornithes

Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)Cuvier-87-Flamant rouge.jpg



Podicipediformes (grebes)Podiceps cristatus Naumann white background.jpg




Charadriiformes (waders and relatives)D'Orbigny-Mouette rieuse et Bec-en-ciseaux white background.jpg



Ardeae
Eurypygimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)Cuvier-95-Phaeton à bec rouge.jpg



Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu)Cuvier-72-Caurale soleil.jpg



Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons)




Austrodyptornithes

Procellariiformes (albatrosses and petrels)



Sphenisciformes (penguins) Chinstrap Penguin white background.jpg






Ciconiiformes (storks) Weißstorch (Ciconia ciconia) white background.jpg




Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.)



Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons & ibises) Spot-billed pelican takeoff white background.jpg








Inopinaves

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)Cuvier-59-Hoazin huppé.jpg


Telluraves

Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (New World vultures)Vintage Vulture Drawing white background.jpg



Accipitriformes (hawks and relatives)Golden Eagle Illustration white background.jpg





Afroaves

Strigiformes (owls)Cuvier-12-Hibou à huppe courte.jpg


Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mouse birds)


Cavitaves

Leptosomiformes (cuckoo roller)


Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals)Harpactes fasciatus 1838 white background.jpg


Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills and relatives)A monograph of the Bucerotidæ, or family of the hornbills (Plate II) (white background).jpg




Coraciiformes (kingfishers and relatives)Cuvier-46-Martin-pêcheur d'Europe.jpg



Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives)Atlante ornitologico (Tav. 26) (picchio verde).jpg








Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)Cariama cristata 1838 white background.jpg


Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)NewZealandFalconBuller white background.jpg


Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)Pyrrhura lucianii - Castelnau 2.jpg



Passeriformes (passerines)Cuvier-33-Moineau domestique.jpg
















Related Pages

Images for kids


Neornithes Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.