John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont, 1852 portrait, by William S. Jewett
|5th Territorial Governor of Arizona|
October 6, 1878 – October 11, 1881
|Appointed by||Rutherford B. Hayes|
|Preceded by||John Philo Hoyt|
|Succeeded by||Frederick Augustus Tritle|
|United States Senator
September 9, 1850 – March 3, 1851
|Preceded by||None (Statehood)|
|Succeeded by||John B. Weller|
|3rd Military Governor of California|
January 14, 1847 – March 1, 1847
|Appointed by||James K. Polk|
|Preceded by||Robert F. Stockton|
|Succeeded by||Stephen W. Kearny|
John Charles Fremon
January 21, 1813
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
|Died||July 13, 1890
New York City, U.S.
|Alma mater||College of Charleston|
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1838–1848
Department of the West
John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813-July 13, 1890), birth name John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer. He was the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States in 1856. He was born in Savannah, Georgia
Frémont assisted and led multiple surveying expeditions through the western territory of the United States. In 1838 and 1839 he assisted Joseph Nicollet in exploring the lands between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. In 1841 he mapped portions of the Des Moines River, and from 1841 to 1846 he led exploration parties on the Oregon Trail and into the Sierra Nevada.
On January 16, 1847 he was appointed Governor of the new California Territory following the Treaty of Cahuenga which ended the Mexican-American War in California. He served briefly (from 1850 to 1851) as a Senator from California. In 1856 the new Republican Party nominated him as their first presidential candidate, but he lost (see U.S. presidential election, 1856) to James Buchanan.
Frémont served as a major general in the American Civil War and declared martial law in Missouri. This declaration led to a conflict with Abraham Lincoln and led to Frémont's removal from command in the West on November 2, 1861. He was re-appointed to a different post (in West Virginia), but lost several battles and resigned his post.
After the Civil War, Frémont's wealth declined after investing heavily and purchasing an unsuccessful Pacific Railroad in 1866, and lost much of his wealth during the Panic of 1873. Frémont served as Governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881 appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Frémont, retired from politics and financially destitute, died in New York City at the age of 77 in 1890.
Historians portray Frémont as controversial and contradictory. Some scholars regard him as a military hero of significant accomplishment. Frémont's published reports and maps produced from his explorations significantly contributed to massive American emigration overland into the West starting in the 1840s.
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