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Rimini
Rémin  (Romagnol)
Comune
Comune di Rimini
Rimini Montage.jpg
Top left: View of Adriatic Sea and backyard in Rimini, top right: View of Rimini Beach in Lungomare area, bottom left: Malatesta Temple, Bottom middle:Arch of Augustus, Bottom upper right:Rimini theatre and Pope Paul V in Cavour Square, Bottom lower right:Tiberius Bridge, main monuments: Tiberius Bridge and Arch of Augustus
Country Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Rimini (RN)
Area
 • Total 134 km2 (52 sq mi)
Elevation 6 m (20 ft)
Population (31 May 2019)
 • Total 150,951
 • Density 1,127/km2 (2,918/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Riminesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 47921, 47922, 47923, 47924
Dialing code 0541
Patron saint Gaudentius of Rimini
Saint day 14 October

Rimini is a city in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy. It is also the capital of the Province of Rimini. About 138,000 people live in Rimini.

Rimini is a popular seaside resort known for its bars and nightclubs. It has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa in the Köppen climate classification).

Geography

Topography

Rimini banner
Panoramic view of Rimini beach
Veduta di San Marino da Montecieco (RN)
View of San Marino from the hills of Rimini
Igea Marina - panoramio (2)
View of Bellaria beach

Rimini is situated at 44°03'00'' north and 12°34'00'' east, along the coast of the Adriatic sea, at the southeastern edge of Emilia-Romagna, at a short distance from Montefeltro and Marche. Rimini extends for 135.71 square km and borders the municipalities of Bellaria-Igea Marina, San Mauro Pascoli, and Santarcangelo di Romagna towards NW, Verucchio and Serravalle towards SW, Coriano towards S, and Riccione towards SE. The city is also located at the intersection of three Roman roads: Via Emilia, Via Popilia, and Via Flaminia. Viserba is the most important of Rimini's northern districts, with 8,556 inhabitants.

Rimini is located in a historically strategic position, at the extreme southern edge of the Po Valley, at the junction point of Northern and Central Italy. It is surrounded towards southwest by the gently rolling hills of Covignano (153 metres high), Vergiano (81 m), San Martino Monte l'Abbate (57 m) and San Lorenzo in Correggiano (60 m), widely cultivated, with vineyards, olive groves and orchards, and dominated by ancient mansions. These hills, mostly made of clay and sand, connect the plains, created by the Marecchia and Ausa, the two most important rivers of Rimini territory, to the higher hills of the Apennines.

The Marecchia river runs through its valley and the plain in a very large riverbed and, after confluence with the Ausa, it flows into the Adriatic sea through a deviator between San Giuliano Mare and Rivabella, while the ancient riverbed is used in its last section as the city's harbour. The Marecchia, usually with little water flow, was subjected to periodic, destructive floods near its mouth, where the riverbed became narrow after various bends: for this reason it was deviated north. Ausa creek, which was the eastern limit of Rimini for many centuries, was deviated as well after World War II, and its original riverbed was filled and turned into an urban park.

The coastal strip, made of recent marine deposits, is edged by a fine sandy beach, 15 km long and up to 200 metres wide, interrupted only by the mouth of the rivers and gently shelving towards the sea. Along the coastline there is a low sandy cliff, created by sea rise around 4000 B.C., partly conserved north of Rimini, between Rivabella and Bellaria-Igea Marina, at a distance of about 1,300 metres from the coast.

Rimini's territory, for its geographical position and its climatic features, is situated on the edge between the mediterranean and the central European phytoclimatic zones, and thus it represents an environment of notable naturalistic value.

Districts

Rimini dall'alto (ottobre 2013)
Aerial view of Rimini
Beach of Rimini (14-07-2012)
Rimini beach
San Giuliano Mare and Rivabella (14-07-2012)
View of Rimini Marina, San Giuliano Mare
2007-04-10 Fontana L'Ostrica (Misano Adriatico)
The Fontana dell'Ostrica in Misano Adriatico

Rimini is the main centre of a 50 kilometres (31 miles) long coastal conurbation, which extends from Cervia to Gabicce Mare, including the seaside resorts of Cesenatico, Gatteo a Mare, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Riccione, Misano Adriatico and Cattolica. The conurbation has about 300,000 inhabitants and originated around the mid-20th century due to urban sprawl following intensive tourism development.

The city of Rimini includes the seaside localities and districts of Torre Pedrera, Viserbella, Viserba, Rivabella, San Giuliano Mare towards north and Bellariva, Marebello, Rivazzurra, Miramare towards south. These districts are important to tourism in Rimini.

The city proper includes the historic centre, the four ancient boroughs of S. Giuliano, S. Giovanni, S. Andrea and Marina, the seaside district of Marina Centro and various modern districts - Celle, Marecchiese, INA Casa, V PEEP, Colonnella, Lagomaggio - and outer suburbs such as Padulli, Spadarolo, Covignano, Grottarossa and Villaggio 1° Maggio, located outside of the Adriatic Highway beltline. More outer suburbs are S. Giustina, S. Vito, Spadarolo, Vergiano, Corpolò and Gaiofana.

The historic centre of Rimini, surrounded by the city walls built by Malatesta, and formerly bounded by the Marecchia and Ausa rivers, has a distinctive, regular urban structure of Roman origins. It was divided since the Middle Ages in four districts (Rioni): Cittadella, Clodio, Pomposo and Montecavallo. The boundaries of these districts are not known, but it is assumed that they followed the current Corso d'Augusto, Via Garibaldi, and Via Gambalunga. Additionally, the ancient coastline was situated much farther inland than today's; it gradually shifted outward over centuries and the new land was developed throughout the 20th century.

Rione Cittadella, in the western area of the centre, was the most important district of the city and included the Municipal palaces, Castel Sismondo and the Cathedral of Santa Colomba. Rione Clodio, towards the north, was popular and a peculiar urban structure tied with the near Marecchia river. Rione Pomposo, the widest district of the city, included large orchards and convents. Rione Montecavallo, on the southern part of the historical centre, is characterized by bowed, irregular streets of medieval origins, by the Fossa Patara creek and a small hill called "Montirone".

Outside of the city walls, there are four boroughs (Borghi), which were entirely incorporated to the city by the urban sprawl in early 20th century.

Borgo S. Giuliano, along Via Emilia, dates back to the 11th century and was originally a fishermen's settlement. Dominated by the Church of San Giuliano, it is one of the most picturesque spots of the city, with narrow streets and squares, colourful small houses and many frescoes representing characters and places of Federico Fellini's films.

Borgo S. Giovanni, on both sides of Via Flaminia, was populated by artisans and middle-class; Borgo S. Andrea, located outside of Porta Montanara, along Via Covignano, Via Montefeltro and Via Monte Titano, was strictly tied with agriculture and commerce of cows. Both these two boroughs were developed in 15th century; then they burned in a fire in 1469 and were rebuilt in 19th century, relocating small industries and manufactures, including a brick factory and a phosphorus matches factory.

Borgo Marina, situated on the right bank of the Marecchia, was a portual borough, heavily transformed by Fascist demolitions and World War II bombings, which hit this area due to the proximity to the bridges of the city and the railway station.

Climate

Rimini has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) moderated by the influence of the Adriatic sea, featuring the highest autumn and winter mean temperatures and the highest annual low temperatures in Emilia-Romagna.

Precipitations are equally distributed during the year, with a peak in October (75 mm) and two slight minimums, in January (42 mm) and July (43 mm). In spring, autumn and winter precipitations mainly come from oceanic fronts, while in summer they are brought by thunderstorms, coming from the Apennines or the Po Valley.

Humidity is high all year round, with a minimum of 72% in June and July and a maximum of 84% in November and December. Prevailing winds blow from W, S, E and NE. Southwesterly winds, known as libeccio or garbino, are foehn winds, which may bring warm temperatures in each season. On average, there are over 2,040 sunshine hours per year.

Population

As of 2014, Rimini has 147,537 inhabitants, with a density of over 1,080 inhabitants per square kilometre within the city limits.

In 1861, by the time of the first Italian census, the population was around 28,000; in 1931 it was more than double, 57,000.

With the increasing tourism development, population rapidly grew between 1951 and 1981, the fastest growing period for Rimini in the 20th century, when the city's population grew from 77,000 to over 128,000.

During the 20th century, two former districts of Rimini got administrative autonomy, causing two distinct temporary drops in population totals: Riccione in 1922 and Bellaria-Igea Marina in 1956.

Foreign population is 18,396, (12.5% of the total), mainly from Eastern Europe, East Asia and North Africa. Between 1992 and 2014, foreign population grew from around 1,800 to over 18,000 units. The most important foreign communities are Albanians (3,479), Romanians (2,904), Ukrainians (2,409), Chinese (1,197) and Moldovans (1,023). Other notable foreign groups in the city are Senegalese, Moroccans, Macedonians, Tunisians, Russians, Bangladeshis and Peruvians.

Religion

Rimini's population is mostly Catholic. The city is the seat of the Diocese of Rimini, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Ravenna-Cervia.

The first cathedral of the diocese was the former Cathedral of Santa Colomba until 1798, when the title was transferred to the church of Sant'Agostino. Since 1809, Rimini's cathedral is the Tempio Malatestiano.

Besides Roman Catholic churches, there are also Orthodox, Evangelical and Adventist churches. Between the 13th and 14th century, Rimini had a flourishing Jewish community, which built three distinct synagogues, all destroyed, formerly located around the area of Piazza Cavour, Via Cairoli and Santa Colomba.

Economy

Rimini Beach 1 (2008)
Rimini beach

Rimini is a major international tourist destination and seaside resort, among the most famous ones in Europe and the Mediterranean basin, thanks to a long sandy beach, well-equipped bathing establishments, theme parks and a number of opportunities for leisure and spare time. The economy of the city is entirely based on tourism, whose development started in the first half of the 19th century and increased after World War II.

Rimini's origins as a seaside resort date back to 1843, when the first "Bathing Establishment" was founded, the oldest one of the Adriatic Sea. The width of the beach, the gentle gradient of the sea bed, the equipment of bathing establishments, the luxurious hotels, the mildness of the climate, the richness of curative waters, the prestigious social events, made Rimini a renowned tourist destination among the Italian and European aristocracy.

Palacongressi di Rimini parco
Rimini Convention Centre (Palacongressi)
Ruota panoramica di Rimini, agosto 2012 (3)
The ferris wheel and the harbour at night
Porto canale, Rimini Italy
Rimini harbour in winter, with the lighthouse in the background

Tourism in Rimini started as therapeutic stay (thalassotherapy, hydrotherapy and heliotherapy), evolving into élite vacation in the late 19th century, into middle-class tourism during the fascist era and finally into mass tourism in the postwar period.

In the summer nights there's a festival called "La Notte Rosa"

Rimini concentrates a quarter of Emilia-Romagna's hotels, with over 1,000 hotels, 300 of which are open all year round, and hundreds of apartment hotels, apartments, holiday homes, bed & breakfast and campings. Tourism is mainly based on seaside holidays, but also includes trade fairs and conventions, events, nightlife, culture, wellness, food and wine. Rimini is a leading trade fair and convention site in Italy, with an important Trade Fair (Rimini Fiera) and a Convention centre (Palacongressi di Rimini).

The city's other economic sectors, such as services, commerce, construction industry, have been influenced by the development of tourism. Commerce is one of the main economic sectors, thanks to the presence of a large wholesale center, two hypermarkets, department stores, supermarkets and hundreds of shops and boutiques. Industry, less developed than tourism and services, includes various companies active in food industry, woodworking machineries, building constructions, furnishing, clothing and publishing. Notable companies are Bimota (motorcycles), SCM (woodworking machines), Trevi S.p.A. (electronic goods). Rimini is also seat of an historic railway works plant.

Agriculture and fishing were the city's main economic sources until the early 20th century. Rimini boasts an important tradition in wine production (Sangiovese, Trebbiano, Rebola, Pagadebit, Albana wines) and an historic extra virgin olive oil production. The most common crops of the area, besides vineyards and olive groves, are orchards (peaches, nectarines, apricots, persimmons, apples, pears, cherries, kiwifruits and plums), vegetables and legumes (lettuce, zucchini, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, green beans, cauliflowers, fennels, strawberries), seminatives (wheat, barley, grain sorghum, corn, oat), sunflowers and canola. Fishing industry can count on a fleet of about 100 fishing boats, the most consistent of Rimini's fishing department, which includes the coast between Cattolica and Cesenatico.

Arts and culture

Museums

Museo di rimini, sezione archeologica, piano interrato
City Museum, Archaeological Department

The City Museum (Museo della Città), main museal institution of Rimini, was inaugurated as "Archaeology Gallery", at the ground floor of Palazzo Gambalunga in 1872, thanks to riminese historian Luigi Tonini, active in researching and studying the local archaeological heritage. The Archaeology Gallery was the first museum of the city and was conceived as a collection of Etruscan civilization and Roman antiquities, found in Rimini and in the surrounding countryside.

The civic museum was arranged in San Francesco monastery in 1923 and in 1938 was enlarged with a section of Medieval Art. The objects avoided the destructions of World War II, being moved between 1940 and 1943 to two different shelters in Spadarolo and Novafeltria. In 1964, the collections were moved to Palazzo Visconti and finally, from 1990, to the Collegio dei Gesuiti, a large Jesuit convent designed by bolognese architect Alfonso Torreggiani, built in 1749.

Museo della cittò di rimini, cortile 02
The Roman Lapidary, exhibited in the inner courtyard of the City Museum
Scuola riminese, giudizio universale, da san giovanni evangelista (oggi sant'agostino) a rimini, 1310 ca. 01
City Museum, Last Judgement Room

In the Archaeological department are exhibited grave goods from Villanovian tombs of Verucchio and Covignano, architectural pieces, sculptures, mosaics, ceramics, coins of Republican and Imperial eras, and the exceptional medical kit from the Domus del Chirurgo. The collection of the Roman Lapidary, exhibited in the inner courtyard of the convent, has funerary monuments, epigraphies and milestones.

The Medieval and Modern Art departments include collections of paintings, sculptures and art objects by artists from Romagna (Giovanni da Rimini, Giuliano da Rimini, Guido Cagnacci), Emilia (Guercino, Vittorio Maria Bigari), Tuscany (Domenico Ghirlandaio, Agostino di Duccio) and Veneto (Giovanni Bellini), from 14th to 19th century. The City Museum arranges temporary exhibitions and promotes researches, study and restoration activities of the city's historical and artistic heritage.

The Fellini Museum (Museo Fellini), dedicated to Federico Fellini, houses temporary exhibitions of documents, drawings, scenographies and costumes related to the movie production of the famous film director.

The Museum of Glances (Museo degli Sguardi), housed in Villa Alvarado, on Covignano hill, was instituted in 2005 acquiring the objects of the former Museum of Extra European Cultures "Dinz Rialto", founded in Rimini in 1972 by explorer Delfino Dinz Rialto, the art pieces of the former Missionary Museum of the Grazie and other private collections. The museum has over 3,000 objects coming from China, Oceania, Africa and pre-Columbian America, with paintings, sculptures, everyday objects, totems, masks, musical instruments and clothes illustrating how the Western world has looked at these territories' cultures through history.

The Museum of Small Fishing and Marine (Museo della Piccola Pesca e della Marineria), in Viserbella, shows the history of Rimini's Marine through a collection of boats, fishing tools, photographs and a large seashells collection, with pieces from all over the Mediterranean Sea.

In the municipality of Rimini there are also two private museums: the Aviation Museum (Museo dell'Aviazione) in Sant'Aquilina, close to the boundary of the Republic of San Marino, and the National Museum of Motorcycle (Museo Nazionale del Motociclo) in Casalecchio.

Libraries

Biblioteca Gambalunga (Rimini)-3
The 17th-century rooms of the Gambalunghiana Library

The Gambalunghiana Library, historic institution founded in 1617 by jurist Alessandro Gambalunga, plays a leading role in the city's cultural life. The library has over 280,000 books, including 60,000 ancient books, 1,350 manuscripts, 6,000 prints and 80,000 photographs. Among the incunables, dated back from the 15th century, stand out De Claris mulieribus (1497) by Giacomo Filippo Foresti and De re militari by Roberto Valturio. The collection of illuminated manuscripts, coming from different cultural and linguistic European boundaries, includes the Regalis Historia by Frate Leonardo and De Civitate Dei by Saint Augustine.

Theatre and Films

Teatro Novelli Rimini
Teatro Novelli's Hall

The first stable theatre in Rimini is documented since 1681, when the city council decided on the transformation of the Arengo's main hall into a large theatre hall, hosting shows of amateur dramatics companies and the young Carlo Goldoni, who was studying philosophy in the city at that time. Between 1842 and 1857 the great Municipal Theatre Vittorio Emanuele II was built, designed in Neoclassical style by the architect Luigi Poletti, according to the traditional canons of the 19th-century Italian theatre. The theatre was inaugurated by Giuseppe Verdi, who directed "L'Aroldo", and hosted prestigious opera seasons until its destruction in 1943 due to aerial bombings. Since 1947, it has been called Teatro Amintore Galli. Since its closure, theatre shows has been hosted in the modern Teatro Ermete Novelli in Marina Centro.

Rimini appeared on the movie screen for the first time in some early footages, such as the documentary "Rimini l'Ostenda d'Italia" (1912), and in various Istituto Luce's newsreels in the Thirties. The film director Federico Fellini, was born and raised in Rimini, portrayed characters, places and atmospheres of his hometown through his movies, which however were almost entirely shot in Cinecittà's studios in Rome: I Vitelloni, 8 e ½ (Oscar award in 1964), I clowns, Amarcord (Oscar award in 1975). Other Italian movies filmed in Rimini includes "La prima notte di quiete" by Valerio Zurlini, "Rimini Rimini" by Sergio Corbucci, "Abbronzatissimi" by Bruno Gaburro, "Sole negli occhi" by Andrea Porporati, "Da zero a dieci" by Luciano Ligabue and "Non pensarci" by Gianni Zanasi.

Music

The earliest musician from Rimini was Saint Arduino (10th century); a musical tradition of some distinction was witnessed in the following century by the presence of a music school, named "Scuola cantorum", at the Cathedral of Santa Colomba. French composer Guillaume Dufay stayed in Rimini, at Malatesta's court until 1427. In 1518 Pietro Aaron became the first choirmaster of the Cathedral's chapel. In 1690 Carlo Tessarini, violinist and composer, was born in Rimini. The city also gave birth to the musician Benedetto Neri, professor at the Academy of Music in Milan.

Amintore Galli, illustrious musicologist and composer born in Talamello in 1845, attended the city's Classical Lyceum before moving to Milan, where he studied at the Academy of Music; in 1945 the Municipal Theatre of Rimini was dedicated to him.

Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many social events and dance parties took place at the Bathing Establishment, hosting celebrities such as soprano Elena Bianchini-Cappelli and tenor Enrico Caruso.

In recent years, the city inspired the homonymous music album by Fabrizio De André, released in 1978, and it is cited in various popular Italian and foreign songs by Fabrizio De André, Francesco Guccini, Nino Rota, Elvis Costello, Fred Buscaglione. Also born in Rimini were the songwriter Samuele Bersani and the composer and music producer Carlo Alberto Rossi, author of some of Mina's songs.

Cuisine

Tagliatelle al ragù (image modified)
Tagliatelle with bolognese sauce
Piadina
The Piadina Romagnola

Rimini's cuisine is simple and characterized by intense flavours, and it is indissolubly related to the traditions of rural culture, with peculiar influences due to the city's position between the sea and the hills, near the edge between Romagna and Marche.

The traditional first course is pasta, which includes regular pasta, pasta in broth and baked pasta, prepared in many different shapes. Almost all pasta dishes require a base of "sfoglia", a dough of eggs and flour, handmade with a rolling pin. First courses include cappelletti, passatelli in broth, lasagne, cannelloni, nidi di rondine, ravioli, tagliatelle, garganelli, maltagliati, gnocchi and strozzapreti, seasoned with bolognese sauce or a dressing of butter and sage.

Second courses include meat dishes, such as pollo alla cacciatora, rabbit in porchetta, meat-filled zucchini, sausages and mixed grilled meats, and fish dishes, like barbecues of atlantic mackerels, sardines, rotisseries of oily fishes, sepias with peas, fried squids and gianchetti (known here as "omini nudi").

Piada is a flatbread of ancient traditions, thin and crumbly, obtained from a dough of flour, water, lard and salt, and baked on a scorching "testo" of terracotta or cast iron. It is often accompanied by grilled meats or fishes, sausages, gratinée vegetables, salami, prosciutto, fresh cheeses and country herbs. Cassoni, are stuffed flatbreads similar to piada, with various fillings: country herbs, potatoes and sausages, tomato and mozzarella. Side dishes include mixed salads, gratinée vegetables, roasted potatoes, sautée bladder campion leaves, marinated olives with dill, garlic and orange zest.

Traditional desserts are ciambella, Carnevale's fried fiocchetti and castagnole, piada dei morti (a doughnut with walnuts, raisins, pinenuts and almonds, prepared in November), zuppa inglese (a rich dessert with custard, savoiardi and liqueurs), caramelized figs, peaches in white wine and strawberries in red wine.

Typical local products are squacquerone (a fresh cheese) and saba, a grape syrup used to prepare desserts. Quality extra virgin olive oil is traditionally produced in Rimini area since ancient times. The most famous wines include Sangiovese, Trebbiano, Pagadebit, Rebola, Cabernet Sauvignon and Albana, a dessert wine of Roman origins.

Cityscape

Architecture

Rimini Piazza Cavour
Piazza Cavour
P71226-155652
The Tiberius Bridge

Rimini has a rich historical and artistic heritage, which includes churches and monasteries, villas and palaces, fortifications, archaeological sites, streets and squares. This richness is the result of the succession of various civilizations, dominations and historical events through 22 centuries of history: the Romans, the Byzantines, the role of medieval comune and capital of the Malatesta seignory, the Venetian Republic and the Papal States dominations.

The city has always been a key gate to the Orient and the southern areas of the Mediterranean, thanks to its geographical position and the importance of its harbour, and a meeting point between cultures of Northern and Central Italy.

Rimini Piazza Tre Martiri 2
Piazza Tre Martiri

Rimini has monuments of all epochs, with important examples of architecture from the Roman age, such as the Arch of Augustus, the Tiberius Bridge, the Amphiteatre and the Domus del Chirurgo; from the Middle Ages, such as the Palazzo dell'Arengo, the church of Sant'Agostino and Castel Sismondo; from the Renaissance, with the Tempio Malatestiano, masterpiece of Leon Battista Alberti.

Rimini's archaeological heritage includes various domus of Republican and Imperial age, characterized by polychrome or black and white mosaics, necropolis and sections of the pavement of the ancient Roman streets. The city, along with its boroughs and the seaside district of Marina Centro, also preserves a wide architectural heritage from the Baroque, the Neoclassical and Art Nouveau periods, with churches, palaces, hotels and mansions, which reveal its role of cultural, political, trading centre and famous seaside resort.

The city has a Roman structure, partly modified by following medieval transformations. A continuous evolution, through the urban renovation of the Malatesta, earthquakes, the suppressions of monasteries, has led to a peculiar stratification of historic sites and buildings. The bombings of World War II destroyed the city almost completely, compromising the monumental heritage and the integrity of the city centre, which has been reconstructed and restored in order to valorize its historic places and its numerous fine buildings.

Main Sights

Tempio malatestiano, esterno 04
Tempio Malatestiano
Chiesa di Sant'Agostino, Rimini Italy
Church of Sant'Agostino
Palazzo dell'Arengo, Rimini Italy
Palazzo dell'Arengo
Castel sismondo 01
Castel Sismondo
Arco d'Augusto, Rimini Italy
Arch of Augustus
Tiberius-Brücke
Tiberius Bridge
Veduta panoramica orizzonatale dell'Anfiteatro
The ruins of the Roman amphiteatre

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