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Rockingham County
Rockingham County Courthouse in Court Square, Harrisonburg
Rockingham County Courthouse in Court Square, Harrisonburg
Official seal of Rockingham County
Map of Virginia highlighting Rockingham County
Location within the U.S. state of Virginia
Map of the United States highlighting Virginia
Virginia's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Virginia
Founded 1778
Named for Charles Watson-Wentworth
Seat Harrisonburg
Largest town Bridgewater
 • Total 853 sq mi (2,210 km2)
 • Land 849 sq mi (2,200 km2)
 • Water 4.3 sq mi (11 km2)  0.5%
 • Total 83,757
 • Density 98.19/sq mi (37.912/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district 6th

Rockingham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population was 83,757. Its county seat is the independent city of Harrisonburg.

Along with Harrisonburg, Rockingham County forms the Harrisonburg, VA, Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is also home of the Rockingham County Baseball League.


Settlement of the county began in 1727, when Adam Miller (Mueller) staked out a claim on the south fork of the Shenandoah River, near the line that now divides Rockingham County from Page County. On a trip through eastern Virginia, the German-born Miller had heard reports about a lush valley to the west which had been discovered by Governor Alexander Spotswood's legendary Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition, and then moved his family down from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. In 1741, Miller purchased 820 acres (3.3 km2), including a large lithia spring, near Elkton, Virginia, and lived on this property for the remainder of his life.

Much-increased settlement of this portion of the Colony of Virginia by Europeans began in the 1740s and 1750s. Standing between the Tidewater and Piedmont regions to the east in Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley and the area beyond (known in old Virginia as the "Transmountaine") were the Blue Ridge Mountains. Rather than cross such a formidable physical barrier, most early settlers came southerly up the valley across the Potomac River from Maryland and Pennsylvania. Many followed the Great Wagon Trail, also known as the Valley Pike (U.S. Route 11 in modern times).

Rockingham County was established in 1778 from Augusta County. Harrisonburg was named as the county seat and incorporated as a town in 1780. Harrisonburg was incorporated as a city in 1916 and separated from Rockingham County (all cities in Virginia are independent cities), but it remains the county seat.

The county is named for Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, a British statesman (1730–1782). He was Prime Minister of Great Britain twice, and a keen supporter of constitutional rights for the colonists. During his first term, he repealed the Stamp Act of 1765, reducing the tax burden on the colonies. Appointed again in 1782, upon taking office, he backed the claim for the independence of the Thirteen Colonies, initiating an end to British involvement in the American Revolutionary War. However, he died after only 14 weeks in office.

By 1778, it was unusual to honor British officials in Virginia, fighting for its independence. The same year, immediately to the north of Rockingham County, Dunmore County, named for Virginia's last Royal Governor, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, an unpopular figure, was renamed. The new name, Shenandoah County, used a Native American name.

However, long their political supporter in the British Parliament, the Marquess of Rockingham was a popular figure with the citizens of the new United States. Also named in his honor were Rockingham County, New Hampshire, Rockingham County, North Carolina, and the City of Rockingham in Richmond County, North Carolina.

Rockingham County is the birthplace of Thomas Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln’s father.

In 1979 when the Adolf Coors Brewing Company came to Rockingham County it caused an uproar where some citizens thought it would corrupt the morals of the area while others wanted the new jobs.

Rockingham Cty VA
View of Rockingham County from Massanutten Mountain (looking west)


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 853 square miles (2,210 km2), of which 849 square miles (2,200 km2) is land and 4.3 square miles (11 km2) (0.5%) is water. It is the third-largest county in Virginia by land area. Large portions of the county fall within the Shenandoah National Park to the east and George Washington National Forest to the west, and therefore are subject to development restrictions. The county stretches west to east from the peaks of eastern-most Alleghany mountains to the peaks of the Blue Ridge mountains, encompassing the entire width of the Shenandoah Valley. Rockingham is bi-sected by another geographic formation, Massanutten Mountain stretching from just east of Harrisonburg, VA to a few miles southwest of Front Royal, VA in Warren County, VA. Massanutten Mountain splits the central Shenandoah Valley as the German River and the North Fork Shenandoah River flow on its western side and the South Fork flows on the eastern.

Adjacent counties


National protected areas


Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 7,449
1800 10,374 39.3%
1810 12,753 22.9%
1820 14,784 15.9%
1830 20,683 39.9%
1840 17,344 −16.1%
1850 20,294 17.0%
1860 23,408 15.3%
1870 23,668 1.1%
1880 29,567 24.9%
1890 31,299 5.9%
1900 33,527 7.1%
1910 34,903 4.1%
1920 30,047 −13.9%
1930 29,709 −1.1%
1940 31,289 5.3%
1950 35,079 12.1%
1960 40,485 15.4%
1970 47,890 18.3%
1980 57,038 19.1%
1990 57,482 0.8%
2000 67,725 17.8%
2010 76,314 12.7%
2020 83,757 9.8%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790–1960 1900–1990
1990–2000 2010 2020

2020 census

Rockingham County, Virginia - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 69,640 71,367 91.25% 85.21%
Black or African American alone (NH) 1,216 1,768 1.59% 2.11%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 83 80 0.11% 0.10%
Asian alone (NH) 454 920 0.59% 1.10%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 8 9 0.01% 0.01%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 44 243 0.06% 0.29%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 793 2,277 1.04% 2.72%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 4,076 7,093 5.34% 8.47%
Total 76,314 83,757 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Census 2000

As of the census of 2000, 67,725 people, 25,355 households, and 18,889 families resided in the county. The population density was 80 people per square mile (31/km2). There were 27,328 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile (12/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 96.58% White, 1.36% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, and 0.73% from two or more races. About 3.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of 25,355 households, 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.40% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.50% were not families. About 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the county, the population was distributed as 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $40,748, and for a family was $46,262. Males had a median income of $30,618 versus $21,896 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,795. About 5.30% of families and 8.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.10% of those under age 18 and 9.70% of those age 65 or over.



Rockingham County is principally served by Norfolk Southern Railway, a (major) Class 1 railroad and additionally, by the Shenandoah Valley Railroad, a short-line railroad.


2019-06-25 16 52 41 View south along Interstate 81 from the overpass for Virginia State Route 990 (Imboden Road) in North River, Rockingham County, Virginia
I-81 in Rockingham County

Interstate 81 runs north–south and meets east–west Interstate 64 near Staunton to the south in adjacent Augusta County.

There are three major Primary State Highways in the county. (A primary road provides service which is relatively continuous and of relatively high traffic volume, long average trip length, high operating speed and high mobility importance). Interstate highways and primary highways in Virginia are maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT).

These primary state highways are:

  • U.S. Route 11 a north–south roadway which Interstate 81 parallels, U.S. Route 11 follows an old Native American trail, later known as the Valley Turnpike.
  • U.S. Route 33 is an east–west road which extends from a mountain ridge border with West Virginia across the Shenandoah Valley through Harrisonburg and Elkton. East of there, it climbs the western slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains to reach Swift Run Gap, a wind gap located at an elevation of 2,365 feet (721 m). The bucolic Skyline Drive, which is part of Shenandoah National Park, has an entry point at Swift Run Gap and the Appalachian Trail also passes through nearby. The mountain ridge forms the border between Rockingham County and Greene County. (U.S. 33 continues east to Richmond).
  • U.S. Route 340 in a north–south roadway which runs along the western slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Valley.

Secondary roads: As provided by the Byrd Road Act of 1932, secondary roads in Rockingham County are also maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT).

Points of interest

The County is proud of its deep agricultural heritage. It leads Virginia in poultry production, and two turkey statues, one at either end of Route 11, indicate that the county is the "Turkey Capital" of Virginia. The annual Rockingham County Fair is one of the top fairs in the nation, and the county has a sizeable old-order-Mennonite farming presence, supporting numerous farmers' markets.

Rockingham County is home to a large section of the Shenandoah National Park and Skyline Drive, with an entrance point at Swift Run Gap. Boasting numerous hiking and walking trails, as well as scenic overlooks and waterfalls, the park is one of the focal points of Shenandoah Valley tourism. Numerous caves dot Rockingham county, including Grand Caverns in Grottoes, VA. The county also is home to a large section of the George Washington National Forest, offering camping and outdoor activity. Massanutten Resort offers two golf courses and an indoor water park, as well as seasonal skiing, mountain biking and river rafting.

Two Civil War battles took place in Rockingham County, one at Cross Keys, just southeast of Harrisonburg, and another at Port Republic, along the South Fork of the Shenandoah River just north of Grottoes. Among local museums, the Harrisonburg-Rockingham Historical Society in Dayton, VA is unique for its 20-foot multimedia wall-map narrating the troop-movements of Jackson's Valley Campaign.



Census-designated places

Other unincorporated communities


Independent city

Since it became an independent city, Harrisonburg is no longer politically located in Rockingham County, despite its status as the county seat.


Colleges and universities

  • Bridgewater College, Bridgewater, Virginia
  • Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia
  • James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Condado de Rockingham (Virginia) para niños

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