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(Redirected from First Gulf War)
Persian Gulf War
Gulf War Photobox.jpg
Date August 2, 1990 – February 28, 1991
Location Persian Gulf
Result Coalition victory
  • Iraq expelled from Kuwait
  • Kuwaiti monarchy restored
  • Destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure
  • Failed Shia/Kurdish uprisings against the Iraqi government
  • Iraqi Kurdistan obtains autonomy, establishment of the northern Iraq no fly zone by the US
  • Saddam Hussein retains power
  • UN sanctions against Iraq maintained until 2003
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 establishes cease-fire terms, beginning of the Iraq disarmament controversies
Participants
 United States
 Saudi Arabia
 United Kingdom
 Egypt
 France
 Syria
 Morocco
 Kuwait
 Oman
 Pakistan
 Canada
 United Arab Emirates
 Qatar
 Bangladesh
 Italy
 Australia
 Netherlands
 Niger
 Sweden
 Argentina
 Senegal
 Spain
 Bahrain
 Belgium
 Poland
 South Korea
 Norway
 Czechoslovakia
 Greece
 Denmark
 New Zealand
 Hungary
Iraq Ba'athist Iraq
Commanders and leaders
United States Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. Iraq Saddam Hussein
Strength
956,600, including 700,000 US troops 650,000 soldiers
Casualties and losses
Coalition:
292 killed (147 killed by enemy action, 145 non-hostile deaths)
467 wounded in action
776 wounded
31 Tanks destroyed/disabled


32 Bradley IFVs destroyed/damaged

1 M113 APC destroyed
2 British Warrior APCs destroyed
1 Artillery Piece destroyed
75 Aircraft destroyed
Kuwait:
4,200 killed
12,000 captured
≈200 tanks destroyed/captured
850+ other armored vehicles destroyed/captured 57 aircraft lost
At least 8 aircraft captured (Mirage F1s)
17 ships sunk, 6 captured

Iraqi:
25,000–50,000
75,000+ wounded
80,000 captured
3,300 tanks destroyed
2,100 APCs destroyed
2,200 Artillery Pieces destroyed
110 Aircraft destroyed
137 Aircraft escaped to Iran
19 naval ships sunk, 6 damaged

The Persian Gulf War, sometimes just called the Gulf War, was a conflict between Iraq and 34 other countries, led by the United States. It started with the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq on August 2, 1990. Iraq had long claimed Kuwait as part of its territory. The war ended the following spring when Iraq's armies were defeated. There were two military operations.

Operation Desert Shield brought troops to protect Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states that Iraq had not attacked.

Operation Desert Storm attacked Iraq's forces both in Kuwait and in Iraq. It started on 17 January, 1991 with an air strike. Ground operations started 24 February. Iraqi forces set fire to oil wells to slow the attack.The war ended on 28 February, 1991 with a ceasefire.

The long Iran–Iraq War had ended in August 1988. Iraq owed a great amount of money to Saudi Arabia and had difficulty paying it back. Saddam Hussein declared the neighboring country of Kuwait to be siphoning Iraqi crude oil from across the border, and on August 2nd, 1990 the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait started.  On January 17, 1991 the US began the Persian Gulf War with a massive US led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm.

The attacks were assisted by newly developed weapons, including stealth aircraft, cruise missiles and smart bombs.

After 42 days of fighting U.S. President Bush declared a ceasefire on February 28. By that time most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled.  

Operation Desert storm included a bombing campaign that targeted Iraqi aircraft, anti-aircraft systems, oil refineries, weapon factories, bridges, and roads. The war was a lopsided victory for coalition forces. President George Bush decided not to depose Saddam Houssein.

Political issues after Operation Desert Storm lead to the second Persian Gulf War in 2003.

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