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Islamic Republic of Mauritania

الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah
République islamique de Mauritanie  (French)
Motto: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic)
"Honor, Fraternity, Justice"
Anthem: نشيد وطني موريتاني
(English: "Country of the Proud, Guiding Noblemen")
Location of Mauritania (dark blue) in Africa
Location of Mauritania (dark blue) in Africa
Location of Mauritania
Capital
and largest city
Nouakchott
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Official languages Arabic
Recognised national languages
  • Hassaniya Arabic
  • Pulaar
  • Soninke
  • Wolof
  • Malinke
  •  a
Other languages French
Ethnic groups
  • Haratin 40%
  • Arab-Berber 30%
  • Halpulaar, Fulani, Mande, and Wolof 30%
Religion
Islam
Demonym(s) Mauritanian
Government Unitary semi-presidential Islamic republic
• President
Mohamed Ould Ghazouani
• Prime Minister
Ismail Ould Bedde Ould Cheikh Sidiya
• President of the National Assembly
Cheikh Ahmed Baye
Legislature National Assembly
Independence
• from France
28 November 1960
• Current Constitution of Mauritania
12 July 1991
Area
• Total
1,030,000 km2 (400,000 sq mi) (28th)
• Water (%)
0.03
Population
• 2018 estimate
4,403,313
• 2013 census
3,537,368
• Density
3.4/km2 (8.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$18.117 billion (134th)
• Per capita
$4,563 (140th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$5.200 billion (154th)
• Per capita
$1,309 (149th)
Gini (2008) 40.5
medium
HDI (2018) Increase 0.527
low · 161st
Currency Ouguiya (MRU)
Time zone UTC (GMT)
Driving side right
Calling code +222
ISO 3166 code MR
Internet TLD .mr
  1. According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar, Soninke, and Wolof; the official language is Arabic."

Mauritania is a country in northwest Africa. The capital city, which is also the biggest city in the country, is Nouakchott. It is on the Atlantic coast. Its president is General Mohamed Oueld Abdel-Aziz.

At 1,030,700 km² (397,929 mi²), Mauritania is the world's 29th-largest country (after Bolivia). It is similar in size to Egypt. The land is flat in most places.

Geography

Mauritania's land area is 1,030,000 square kilometres (397,685 sq mi), 90% of which is desert. It is the world's 29th-largest country (after Bolivia). It is comparable in size to Egypt. It lies mostly between latitudes 14° and 26°N, and longitudes 5° and 17°W (small areas are east of 5° and west of 17°).

Mauritania is generally flat, with vast arid plains broken by occasional ridges and cliff-like outcroppings. A series of scarps face south-west, longitudinally bisecting these plains in the center of the country. The scarps also separate a series of sandstone plateaus, the highest of which is the Adrar Plateau. It reaches an elevation of 500 meters (1,640 ft). Spring-fed oases lie at the foot of some of the scarps.

Isolated peaks, often rich in minerals, rise above the plateaus; the smaller peaks are called guelbs and the larger ones kedias. The concentric Guelb er Richat (also known as the Richat Structure) is a prominent feature of the north-central region. Kediet ej Jill, near the city of Zouîrât, has an elevation of 915 meters (3,002 ft) and is the highest peak.

Approximately three quarters of Mauritania is desert or semi-desert. As a result of extended, severe drought, the desert has been expanding since the mid-1960s. To the west, between the ocean and the plateaus, are alternating areas of clayey plains (regs) and sand dunes (ergs), some of which shift from place to place, gradually moved by high winds. The dunes generally increase in size and mobility toward the north.

Economy

Mauritania treemap
Graphical depiction of Mauritania's product exports in 28 color-coded categories

Despite being rich in natural resources, Mauritania has a low GDP. A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. Gold and copper mining companies are opening mines in the interior.

The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In March 1999, the government signed an agreement with a joint World Bank-International Monetary Fund mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF). The economic objectives have been set for 1999–2002. Privatization remains one of the key issues. Mauritania is unlikely to meet ESAF's annual GDP growth objectives of 4–5%.

Oil was discovered in Mauritania in 2001 in the offshore Chinguetti field. Although potentially significant for the Mauritanian economy, its overall influence is difficult to predict. Mauritania has been described as a "desperately poor desert nation, which straddles the Arab and African worlds and is Africa's newest, if small-scale, oil producer." There may be additional oil reserves inland in the Taoudeni basin, although the harsh environment will make extraction expensive.

United Arab Emirates government, via its pilot green city Masdar, announced it will install new solar plants in the city of Atar which will supply an additional 16.6 megawatts of electricity. The plants will power about 39,000 homes and save 27,850 tonnes of carbon emissions per year.

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