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Simón Bolívar
Simon-bolivar.jpg
President of the Second Republic of Venezuela
In office
7 August 1813 – 16 July 1814
Preceded by Francisco de Miranda
(As President of the First Republic of Venezuela)
Succeeded by Himself
President of the Third Republic of Venezuela
In office
October 1817 – 24 February 1819
Preceded by Himself
Succeeded by José Antonio Páez
(President of Venezuela)
1st President of Gran Colombia
In office
24 February 1819 – 4 May 1830
Vice President Francisco de Paula Santander
Succeeded by Domingo Caycedo
President of Bolivia
In office
12 August 1825 – 29 December 1825
Succeeded by Antonio José de Sucre
6th President of Peru
In office
10 February 1824 – 28 January 1827
Preceded by José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-Tagle
Succeeded by Andrés de Santa Cruz
Personal details
Born (1783-07-24)24 July 1783
Caracas, Captaincy General of Venezuela, Spanish Empire
Died 17 December 1830(1830-12-17) (aged 47)
Santa Marta, Gran Colombia
(now in Colombia)
Cause of death Tuberculosis
Nationality Venezuelan
Spouse(s) María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaiza
Signature

Simón Bolívar (1783 - 1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader. He was born in Caracas, Venezuela. He liberated many countries from Spain in South America. Those countries included Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. For a few years he was president of Gran Colombia, a country that no longer exists. The country Bolivia is named after Bolívar.

While in Madrid during 1802, Bolívar married María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaiza.

Revolution in Latin America

White people felt ignored because Spaniards were sent by their governor, and resented wealthy mixed heritage people who could “buy” whiteness. The creoles started calling themselves Americans and not Spaniards to demonstrate that they wanted independence. In 1808, Napoleon conquered Spain, and made his brother, Joseph Bonaparte the new king. The colonies in Latin America rebelled because they said they were loyal to the old king, Charles IV of Spain and not Napoleon.

On September 6th 1815 Simón Bolívar wrote a letter from Jamaica. He explained the causes and reasons why all of South America or parts of it should be independent (free from Spain's ruling). Simón Bolívar was tired of how Venezuela and other countries were treated like slaves and how they were not free. He said “We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs.” He kept saying in the Jamaica letter why it's important to be free. “We are still in a position lower than slavery, and therefore it is more difficult for us to rise to the enjoyment of freedom.” This means they could not even enjoy freedom. "Because succeses have been partial and spasmodic, we must not lose faith. We are young in the ways of almost all the arts and sciences, although, in a certain manner, we are old in the ways of civilized society."

On May 26, 1819 Bolivar gathered with a group of guerrillas that wanted to defeat the Spanish army. They got supplies and they crossed hundreds of miles of plains, swamps, rivers, etc. Many of the men died of hunger, diseases, and other causes on the way there. Crossing plains on August 7, they encountered the royalists and won the battle in Boyacá on August 10. Bolívar then occupied Boyoca, Colombia. Bolivar won the fight of Carabobo in June 1821, and after that Caracas fell. A few days later and Venezuela was free of the Spanish royalists, then Bolívar went South and conquered Quito. On July 27, 1822 Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín met at Guayaquil. Bolivar came in as a military leader. Bolivar and San Martin went back to Europe where they both had a meeting. They were preparing to march across the Andes to Peru to defeat the final Spanish royalists in the middle of 1824. He {Simón} launched his campaign and soon he won an important battle at Junin which opened a door to free for Lima.

Bolivar’s legacy is that he helped many of the Latin American countries achieve independence. People called him "El Liberator" because he freed the people. Some people hated him because they thought he was a traitor, and he was going to be a dictator and control people.

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