1275 facts for kids
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1240s 1250s 1260s – 1270s – 1280s 1290s 1300s|
|Years:||1272 1273 1274 – 1275 – 1276 1277 1278|
War and politics
- April 22 – The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses.
- Eleanor de Montfort is captured by pirates in the employ of Edward I of England to prevent her marriage to Llywelyn the Last, prince of Wales; she is used as a bargaining chip over the coming years in Edward's attempts to subjugate Llywelyn and Wales.
- Scottish forces defeat the Manx of the Isle of Man in a decisive battle, firmly establishing Scottish rule of the island.
- Third Mongol Golden Horde raid against Lithuania.
Culture, religion, and science
- Jean de Meun completes the French allegorical work of fiction, Roman de la Rose, with a second section; the first section was written by Guillaume de Lorris in 1230.
- The verge escapement, a simple type of escapement used in clocks, is invented (exact year unknown).
- Ramon Llull establishes a school in Majorca to teach Arabic to preachers in an attempt to aid proselytizing to Moors. He also discovers diethyl ether.
- The first main survey of the Hundred Rolls, an English census seen as a follow up to the Domesday Book completed in 1086, is finished; it began in 1274.
- March – the 200,000 multiethnic troops of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty, headed by the Turkish commander Bayan, face a Chinese Song Dynasty army of 130,000 led by the Song Chancellor Jia Sidao. The result is a decisive victory for the Yuan Dynasty, and soon after the much-vilified Jia Sidao is stripped of rank and title, and killed by one of his own guards as he is sent to exile in Fujian by the Song court.
- Invading Mongol forces capture the Chinese city of Suzhou.
- Marco Polo purportedly visits Xanadu, Kublai Khan's summer capital of the Mongol Empire.
- The city of Kunming is made capital of the Yunnan province of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.
- Nestorian monk Rabban Bar Sauma begin his pilgrimage from China towards Jerusalem
- Chinese astronomers observe a total eclipse of the Sun in China on March 4.
Eras and population estimates
- The era of the tosafot, Medieval commentators on the Talmud, ends (began 1100).
- The population of Bushmen in Basutoland (modern-day Lesotho) is estimated at 125,000.
- The Japanese era Bun'ei ends, and the Kenji era begins.
- September 27 – John II, Duke of Brabant (died 1312)
- William of Alnwick, Franciscan theologian (approximate date; died 1333)
- Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere (died 1322)
- Walter V of Brienne, Duke of Athens (approximate date; died 1311)
- Edward Bruce, Scottish nobleman (approximate date; died 1318)
- Dnyaneshwar, Hindu saint and poet (died 1296)
- Gediminas, Duke of Lithuania (approximate date; died 1341)
- Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor (approximate date; died 1313)
- Mondino de Liuzzi, Italian physician and anatomist (died 1326)
- John Menteith, Scottish nobleman (approximate date; died 1323)
- Giovanni Villani, Florentine writer (approximate date; died 1348)
- Giovanni d'Andrea, Italian jurist
1275 Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.