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1260s facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 12th century13th century14th century
Decades: 1230s 1240s 1250s1260s1270s 1280s 1290s
Years: 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269
Categories: BirthsDeaths – Architecture
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 1260s is a decade. It started on 1 January 1260 and ended on 31 December 1269.

Kublai Khan became the supreme leader (a title for their leader) of the Mongol Empire and moved his capital to Beijing. He was at war with the southern Chinese Song Dynasty. The Mongol Empire lost some of its battles. The first time it lost a battle with Kublai Khan as the leader was in Palestine when fighting the Mamluks of Egypt. The Empire also lost in the Caucasus. The Mamluks were led by their new sultan Baibars. The Mamluks were soon were more in control in the Middle East because they took control of a number of crusader states and also stopped the Mongol attacks from happening as much. The Empire of Nicaea took control of Constantinople and also the Latin Empire so it again became the Byzantine Empire.

In Europe there was problems in politics. Arguments about who was the owner of what land let to many wars in the continent. In England there was the Second Barons' War. This was a civil war between the aristocracy who did not like how the King named Henry III behaved. This was because the King wanted absolute monarchy. King Otakar II of Bohemia became the most important prince in Europe. He got more land by fighting wars and also when his family died some of their land became his. Iceland and Greenland knew of and recognised the overlordship of Norway but when the Norse invaded Scotland the Scottish were able to stop them and they made peace. In Spain the Reconquista was still happening and several important cities were captured again from the Moors. The way the pope was elected was made better. The parliaments of Ireland and England met for the first time.

Several important cultural achievements were made in the decade. Roger Bacon published important scientific work named Opus Majus. Also, Thomas Aquinas published Summa contra Gentiles. Important pices of architecture and sculptures were made in cathedrals in Europe. These include the Cathedral of Chartres and Nicola Pisano's pulpits for the Duomo di Siena and Pisa's Baptistery. In religion, the Sukhothai kingdom in Thailand adopted Buddhism as its official religion. In Europe anti-Semitism became worse because several authorities made laws which said that Jewish people must wear yellow badges so people knew who they were. Many Jewish people were killed in England and the Talmud was attacked and censored by the Catholic Church.

War and politics

Europe

War and peace

North and West Europe
  • 1260 – The Baltic Samogatians and Curonians won the Battle of Durbe against the Teutonic Knights.
  • 1263 – October – King Alexander III of Scotland won the Battle of Largs against the Viking armada (group of ships to fight a war) that was sent by King Haakon IV of Norway.
  • 1263 – The chieftains of the eastern part of Iceland become the last to people to say that they that is was their duty to be loyal to the Norwegian king. This made the Icelandic Commonwealth stop and also stopped the Icelandic civil war.
  • 1266 – The war between Scotland and Norway ended because King Alexander III of Scotland and King Magnus VI of Norway agreed to the Treaty of Perth.
Central and South Europe
Iberian Peninsula (the land that is mostly Spain and Portugal)
Southeast Europe
  • 1260 – King Otakar II of Bohemia takes control of Styria after winning the Battle of Kressenbrunn. King Bela IV of Hungary was in control.
  • 1261 – Bela IV of Hungary stops the Tatars coming to fight to take control of Hungry.
  • 1268 – King Stephen V of Hungary starts a war with Bulgaria.
England: The Second Barons' War

Political places

  • 1260 – The Duchy of Saxony is divided into Saxony-Lauenberg and Saxony-Wittenberg. This is the end of the first Saxon state.
  • 1261 – The persons of Greenland accept the overlordship of the King of Norway.
  • 1262 – Strasbourg becomes an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • 1262 – The Icelandic Commonwealth enters into a treaty joining them with Norway and accept the Norwegian King Haakon IV as the person in control.
  • 1264 – The state of Hesse becomes independent from Thuringia. It is then free state of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • 1265 – The Isle of Man is controlled by Scotland for ten years.
  • 1267 – Emperor Baldwin II of Constantinople gives the Principality of Achaea to King Charles I of Sicily as a gift in the Treaty of Viterbo. He hopes his gift will make Charles help him return the Latin Empire to how it was before.
  • 1268 – The county of Wernigerode becomes a vassal state of the margrave of Brandenburg.

Births

Deaths

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