List of mammals of Spain facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Linces1
The Iberian lynx, the most endangered cat species in the world, exists only in the wild in Spain.

This list shows the IUCN Red List status of 115 mammal species occurring in Spanish territory, both in and outside the Iberian Peninsula. Seven species are endangered, thirteen are vulnerable, and three are near threatened. If the IUCN Red List status of a species in Spain differs from its global status, the status in Spain is shown next between brackets.

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed on the respective IUCN Red List:

EX Extinct No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.
EW Extinct in the wild Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.
CR Critically endangered The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.
EN Endangered The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU Vulnerable The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT Near threatened The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorise it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.
LC Least concern There are no current identifiable risks to the species.
DD Data deficient There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.

Subclass: Theria

Infraclass: Eutheria

Order: Macroscelidea (elephant shrews)


North african elephant shrew
North African elephant shrew

Elephant shrews are small insectivorous mammals native to Africa and members of the superorder Afrotheria. Their name derives from their elongated noses resembling the trunks of elephants, to whom they are distantly related.

  • Family: Macroscelididae
    • Genus: Elephantulus
      • North African elephant shrew, E. rozeti LC

Order: Rodentia (rodents)


Bevers
Eurasian beavers
Eichhörnchen Düsseldorf Hofgarten Crisco edit
Red squirrel
Eliomys quercinus01
Garden dormouse
Arvicola sapidus 02 by-dpc
Southwestern water vole
Feldmaus Microtus arvalis
Common vole
Apodemus.flavicollis
Yellow-necked mouse
Micromysminutus1
Eurasian harvest mouse

Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40% of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (99 lb).

  • Suborder: Castorimorpha
    • Family: Castoridae (beavers)
      • Subfamily: Castorinae
        • Tribe: Castorini
          • Genus: Castor
            • Eurasian beaver, C. fiber LC
  • Suborder: Hystricomorpha
    • Infraorder: Hystricognathi
      • Family: Hystricidae (old world porcupines)
        • Subfamily: Hystricinae
          • Genus: Hystrix
            • Crested porcupine, H. cristata LC
  • Suborder: Sciurognathi
  • Suborder: Myomorpha
    • Family: Cricetidae (hamsters, voles, lemmings)
      • Subfamily: Arvicolinae
        • Genus: Arvicola
          • Southwestern water vole, A. sapidus VU
          • European water vole, A. amphibius LC
        • Genus: Chionomys
          • Snow vole, C. nivalis LC
        • Genus: Microtus
          • Cabrera's vole, M. cabrerae NT
          • Field vole, M. agrestis LC
          • Common vole, M. arvalis LC
          • Mediterranean pine vole, M. duodecimcostatus LC
          • Gerbe's vole, M. gerbei LC
          • Lusitanian pine vole, M. lusitanicus LC
        • Genus: Myodes
        • Genus: Ondatra
          • Muskrat, O. zibethicus LC introduced
    • Family: Muridae (mice and rats)
      • Subfamily: Gerbillinae
        • Genus: Dipodillus
          • North African gerbil, D. campestris LC
      • Subfamily: Murinae
        • Genus: Apodemus
          • Yellow-necked mouse, A. flavicollis LC
          • Wood mouse, A. sylvaticus LC
        • Genus: Lemniscomys
          • Barbary striped grass mouse, L. barbarus LC
        • Genus: Micromys
          • Eurasian harvest mouse, M. minutus LC
        • Genus: Mus
          • House mouse, M. musculus LC
          • Algerian mouse, M. spretus LC
        • Genus: Rattus
    • Family: Myocastoridae (coypu)
      • Subfamily: Myocastorinae
        • Genus: Myocastor
          • Coypu, Myocastor coypu LC introduced

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)


Kaninchen
European rabbit

The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

  • Family: Leporidae (rabbits, hares)
    • Genus: Lepus
      • Broom hare, L. castroviejoi VU
      • European hare, L. europaeus LC
      • Cape hare, L. capensis LC
      • Granada hare, L. granatensis LC
    • Genus: Oryctolagus
      • European rabbit, O. cuniculus EN

Order: Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)


Igel01
West European hedgehog

The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.

  • Family: Erinaceidae (hedgehogs)
    • Subfamily: Erinaceinae
      • Genus: Atelerix
        • North African hedgehog, A. algirus LC
      • Genus: Erinaceus
        • West European hedgehog, E. europaeus LC

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)


Gartenspitzmaus
Lesser white-toothed shrew
Sorex minutus-1
Eurasian pygmy shrew
Galemys pyrenaicus 01 by-dpc
Pyrenean desman
Talpa europaea MHNT
European mole

The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.

  • Family: Soricidae (shrews)
    • Subfamily: Crocidurinae
      • Genus: Crocidura
        • Canary shrew, C. canariensis EN
        • North African white-toothed shrew, C. ichnusae LC introduced
        • Greater white-toothed shrew, C. russula LC
        • Lesser white-toothed shrew, C. suaveolens LC
        • Whitaker's shrew, C. whitakeri LC
      • Genus: Suncus
    • Subfamily: Soricinae
      • Tribe: Nectogalini
        • Genus: Neomys
          • Southern water shrew, N. anomalus LC
          • Eurasian water shrew, N. fodiens LC
      • Tribe: Soricini
        • Genus: Sorex
          • Alpine shrew, S. alpinus NT
          • Common shrew, S. araneus LC
          • Crowned shrew, S. coronatus LC
          • Iberian shrew, S. granarius LC
          • Eurasian pygmy shrew, S. minutus LC
  • Family: Talpidae (moles)
    • Subfamily: Talpinae
      • Tribe: Desmanini
        • Genus: Galemys
          • Pyrenean desman, G. pyrenaicus VU
      • Tribe: Talpini
        • Genus: Talpa (genus)
          • European mole, T. europaea LC
          • Iberian mole, T. occidentalis LC

Order: Chiroptera (bats)


Wasserfledermaus-drawing
Daubenton's bat
Nyctalus leisleri
Lesser noctule
Pipistrellus nathusii
Nathusius' pipistrelle
Plecotus auritus 01
Brown long-eared bat

The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

  • Suborder: Megachiroptera
  • Suborder: Microchiroptera
    • Family: Vespertilionidae
      • Subfamily: Myotinae
        • Genus: Myotis
          • Long-fingered bat, M. capaccinii VU
          • Bechstein's bat, M. bechsteini NT
          • Greater mouse-eared bat, M. myotis LC
          • Lesser mouse-eared bat, M. blythii LC
          • Alcathoe bat, M. alcathoe DD
          • Felten's myotis, M. punicus NT
          • Brandt's bat, M. brandti LC
          • Cryptic myotis, M. crypticus
          • Daubenton's bat, M. daubentonii LC
          • Geoffroy's bat, M. emarginatus LC
          • Escalera's bat, M. escalerai LC
          • Whiskered bat, M. mystacinus LC
          • Natterer's bat, M. nattereri LC
      • Subfamily: Vespertilioninae
        • Genus: Barbastella
          • Barbastelle, B. barbastellus NT
        • Genus: Eptesicus
          • Serotine bat, E. serotinus LC
          • Mediterranean serotine bat, E. isabellinus DD
        • Genus: Hypsugo
          • Savi's pipistrelle, H. savii LC
        • Genus: Nyctalus
          • Greater noctule bat, N. lasiopterus NT
          • Lesser noctule, N. leisleri LC
          • Common noctule, N. noctula LC
        • Genus: Pipistrellus
          • Nathusius' pipistrelle, P. nathusii LC
          • Kuhl's pipistrelle, P. kuhlii LC
          • Madeira pipistrelle, P. maderensis VU
          • Common pipistrelle, P. pipistrellus LC
          • Soprano pipistrelle, P. pygmaeus LC
        • Genus: Plecotus
          • Canary big-eared bat, P. teneriffae VU
          • Alpine long-eared bat, P. macrobullaris NT
          • Brown long-eared bat, P. auritus LC
          • Grey long-eared bat, P. austriacus LC
      • Subfamily: Miniopterinae
        • Genus: Miniopterus
          • Schreibers' long-fingered bat, M. schreibersii NT
    • Family: Molossidae
      • Genus: Tadarida
        • European free-tailed bat, T. teniotis LC
    • Family: Rhinolophidae
      • Subfamily: Rhinolophinae
        • Genus: Rhinolophus
          • Mediterranean horseshoe bat, R. euryale VU
          • Mehely's horseshoe bat, R. mehelyi VU
          • Greater horseshoe bat, R. ferrumequinum NT
          • Lesser horseshoe bat, R. hipposideros NT

Order: Cetacea (whales)

Orion harrapatutako azken balea (1901)
The last North Atlantic right whale captured on the Basque Country coast, near Orio in 1901. This species was known as "Basque whale" or "Whale of the Basques" because of how often it was hunted by Basque whalers.
CZ Rorcual FinWhale Estrecho Strait Gibraltar
Fin whale watching off Tarifa in strait of Gibraltar
Blas Brydewal - Valle Gran Rey
Bryde's whale off La Gomera
Ballenas en el Sur de Tenerife (spain) - panoramio
Short-finned pilot whales off Tenerife, are one the main attractions of local tourism in Canary islands
Common Dolphins in Gibraltar Bay
Common dolphins in Gibraltar Bay
Stenella frontalis DSC 0236
Atlantic spotted dolphin with an injured dorsal fin off La Gomera
Delfines-gijon
Small numbers of striped dolphins live around Gijón

The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

  • Suborder: Mysticeti
    • Family: Balaenidae (right whales)
      • Genus: Eubalaena
        • North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis globally EN, functionally extinct in eastern north Atlantic
    • Family: Eschrichtiidae (gray whales)
      • Genus: Eschrichtius
        • North Atlantic gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus EX (possibly a vagrant from Pacific appeared in 2010)
    • Family: Balaenopteridae (rorquals)
  • Suborder: Odontoceti
    • Family: Delphinidae (marine dolphins)
    • Family: Kogiidae (small sperm whales)
      • Genus: Kogia
        • Pygmy sperm whale, K. breviceps DD
        • Dwarf sperm whale, K. sima DD
    • Family: Phocoenidae (porpoises)
      • Genus: Phocoena
        • Harbour porpoise, P. phocoena VU
    • Family: Physeteridae (sperm whales)
    • Family: Ziphiidae (beaked whales)
      • Genus: Ziphius
      • Subfamily: Hyperoodontinae
        • Genus: Hyperoodon
          • Northern bottlenose whale, H. ampullatus DD
        • Genus: Mesoplodon
          • Sowerby's beaked whale, M. bidens DD
          • Blainville's beaked whale, M. densirostris DD
          • Gervais' beaked whale, M. europaeus DD
          • Gray's beaked whale, M. grayi DD
          • True's beaked whale, M. mirus DD

Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)


Wildcat at British Wildlife Centre
A captive European wildcat
Genetta genetta felina (Wroclaw zoo)
Common genet
Iberian Wolf
Iberian wolf
Europäischer Nerz
European mink
Monachus monachus - Museo civico di storia naturale (Milan)
Mediterranean monk seal (young)

There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)


Lightmatter ibex
Spanish ibex
Isard des pyrenees bigorre 2003
Pyrenean chamois

The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

  • Family: Suidae (pigs)
  • Family: Cervidae (deer)
    • Subfamily: Cervinae
    • Subfamily: Capreolinae
      • Genus: Capreolus
  • Family: Bovidae
    • Subfamily: Caprinae
      • Genus: Ammotragus
        • Barbary sheep, A. lervia VU
      • Genus: Capra
        • Wild goat, C. aegagrus VU
        • Spanish ibex, C. pyrenaica LC
      • Genus: Rupicapra
        • Pyrenean chamois, R. pyrenaica LC
      • Genus: Ovis
        • Mouflon, O. aries orientalis NA

List of mammals of Spain Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.