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Ukiah, California
City
City of Ukiah
Location in Mendocino County and the State of California
Location in Mendocino County and the State of California
Country United States
State California
County Mendocino
Incorporated March 8, 1876
Area
 • Total 4.722 sq mi (12.232 km2)
 • Land 4.670 sq mi (12.096 km2)
 • Water 0.052 sq mi (0.136 km2)  1.11%
Elevation 633 ft (193 m)
Population (April 1, 2010)
 • Total 16,075
 • Estimate (2013) 15,871
 • Density 3,404.3/sq mi (1,314.18/km2)
Time zone Pacific (UTC−8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP codes 95482 and 95418
Area code 707
FIPS code 06-81134
GNIS feature IDs 277623, 2412125
Website www.cityofukiah.com

Ukiah (/juːˈk.ə/ yew-KY; formerly Ukiah City) is the county seat and largest city of Mendocino County, California. With its accessible location (along the U.S. Route 101 corridor several miles south of CA 20), Ukiah serves as the city center for Mendocino County and much of neighboring Lake County. The Ukiah Valley is a center of a major wine production industry. In 1996, Ukiah was ranked the #1 best small town to live in California and the sixth-best place to live in the United States. The population was 16,075 at the 2010 census.

History

Establishment

Yokayo-People-at-Ukiah-California-1916
The Yokayo band of Pomo people who inhabited the Russian River valley from the pre-Columbian era are today an unrecognized tribe in the United States.

Ukiah is located within Rancho Yokaya, one of several Spanish colonial land grants in what was then called "Alta California". The Yokaya grant, which covered the majority of the Ukiah valley, was named after the Pomo word meaning "deep valley." The Pomo were the indigenous people who occupied the area at the time of Spanish colonization. This word was also the basis for the city name, as Ukiah was an anglicized form of Yokaya.

The first Anglo settler to dwell proximate to today's Ukiah was John Parker, a vaquero who worked for pioneer cattleman James Black. Black had driven his stock up the Russian River valley and took possession of a block of grazing land at that locale; a crude block house was constructed to house Parker in order to protect him and the herd from the hostile indigenous local population. This block house was located just south of present-day Ukiah on the banks of what was known as Wilson Creek.

The next Anglo settler was a man named Samuel Lowry, who in 1856 constructed a log cabin approximately on the corner of today's East Perkins Street and North Main Street. Lowery sold his claim to A.T. Perkins in the next spring of 1857, and the latter moved his family into the valley, thereby becoming the first pioneer family of the township. Six others followed to make their home in the community that same year. The first United States post office opened in 1858. By 1859 the population of Ukiah had grown to about 100 people, making it a community sufficient in size to serve as the county seat when the California State Legislature divided Sonoma County to form Mendocino County in 1859.

The town was initially reachable only by stagecoach, with a short rail line from San Francisco terminating in Petaluma, nearly 80 miles to the south, necessitating a horse-drawn trip taking two full days as late as 1870. In subsequent years the rail line was extended further northward to Cloverdale, reducing the stagecoach trip to 30 miles — still enough to maintain the community's relative isolation and to fetter growth.

Ukiah was finally incorporated in 1876. It was not until 1889 that the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad completed its line from Cloverdale to Ukiah, linking the Mendocino County seat to the national rail network at last.

Economic history

Hops were once a predominant crop grown around Ukiah. The beer flavoring agent was first grown there in 1868 when L.F. Long of Largo grew an initial experimental crop. The climate proved suitable for the crop and production expanded, peaking in 1885, before faltering somewhat in the last years of the 1880s due to declining prices. Mendocino County remained the third largest producer of hops in the state of California in 1890, with well over 900 acres under cultivation, and production continued well into the 20th Century. A refurbished hop kiln can be seen at the north end of Ukiah east of Highway 101, where many of the old fields were located.

Ukiah's 20th-century population developed in relation to the lumber boom of the late 1940s, with the logging of redwood being a major industry.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 4.7 square miles (12 km2), 98.89% of it land, and 1.11% of it water.

Climate

Ukiah has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Average rainfall for the area is 36.96 in (939 mm) per year. Measurable precipitation occurs on an average of 82.1 days per year. The greatest monthly precipitation was 24.76 in (628.9 mm) in January 1995 and the greatest 24-hour precipitation was 6.18 in (157.0 mm) on December 22, 1964. Light snowfall occurs about every other year. The greatest recorded snowfall was 1.5 in (3.8 cm) on March 2, 1976.

Climate data for Ukiah, California (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1893–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 82
(27.8)
86
(30)
93
(33.9)
98
(36.7)
105
(40.6)
114
(45.6)
114
(45.6)
114
(45.6)
115
(46.1)
105
(40.6)
92
(33.3)
86
(30)
115
(46.1)
Average high °F (°C) 56.2
(13.44)
59.8
(15.44)
64.6
(18.11)
68.9
(20.5)
75.7
(24.28)
82.7
(28.17)
90.5
(32.5)
89.9
(32.17)
85.9
(29.94)
76.0
(24.44)
61.8
(16.56)
54.9
(12.72)
72.2
(22.33)
Daily mean °F (°C) 46.8
(8.22)
49.5
(9.72)
52.6
(11.44)
55.9
(13.28)
61.6
(16.44)
67.6
(19.78)
73.4
(23)
72.4
(22.44)
68.7
(20.39)
61.1
(16.17)
51.3
(10.72)
45.9
(7.72)
58.9
(14.94)
Average low °F (°C) 37.4
(3)
39.2
(4)
40.6
(4.78)
42.8
(6)
47.5
(8.61)
52.6
(11.44)
56.2
(13.44)
54.9
(12.72)
51.6
(10.89)
46.3
(7.94)
40.7
(4.83)
37.0
(2.78)
45.6
(7.56)
Record low °F (°C) 12
(-11.1)
18
(-7.8)
22
(-5.6)
23
(-5)
28
(-2.2)
35
(1.7)
39
(3.9)
38
(3.3)
30
(-1.1)
24
(-4.4)
19
(-7.2)
13
(-10.6)
12
(-11.1)
Precipitation inches (mm) 7.41
(188.2)
6.99
(177.5)
5.42
(137.7)
2.62
(66.5)
1.49
(37.8)
0.37
(9.4)
0.02
(0.5)
0.09
(2.3)
0.43
(10.9)
2.11
(53.6)
5.07
(128.8)
7.91
(200.9)
39.93
(1,014.2)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 12.7 11.9 11.1 7.5 4.7 1.5 0.1 0.3 1.6 4.4 10.3 13.3 79.4
Source #1: NOAA
Source #2: WRCC (records only)

The average high temperature is 73.5 °F (23.1 °C). Average low temperature is 46.1 °F (7.8 °C). Temperatures reach 90 °F (32 °C) on an average of 65.6 days annually and 100 °F (37.8 °C) on an average of 14.4 days annually. Due to frequent low humidity, summer temperatures normally drop into the fifties at night. Freezing temperatures average 34.2 days per year. The record high temperature was 119 °F (48 °C) on July 22, 1995, and the record low temperature was 10 °F (−12 °C) on December 9, 1972. July is normally the hottest month with a normal high of 91.4 °F (33.0 °C) and a normal low of 55.3 °F (12.9 °C). December has normally the coldest temperatures with a normal high of 55.6 °F (13.1 °C) and a normal low of 36.2 °F (2.3 °C).

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 933
1890 1,627 74.4%
1900 1,850 13.7%
1910 2,136 15.5%
1920 2,305 7.9%
1930 3,124 35.5%
1940 3,731 19.4%
1950 6,120 64.0%
1960 9,900 61.8%
1970 10,095 2.0%
1980 12,035 19.2%
1990 14,599 21.3%
2000 15,497 6.2%
2010 16,075 3.7%
Est. 2015 15,917 −1.0%
U.S. Decennial Census

2010

The 2010 United States Census reported that Ukiah had a population of 16,075. The population density was 3,403.7 people per square mile (1,314.2/km²). The racial makeup of Ukiah was 11,592 (72.1%) White, 174 (1.1%) African American, 601 (3.7%) Native American, 412 (2.6%) Asian, 34 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 2,385 (14.8%) from other races, and 877 (5.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,458 persons (27.7%).

The Census reported that 15,301 people (95.2% of the population) lived in households, 281 (1.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 493 (3.1%) were institutionalized.

There were 6,158 households, out of which 2,049 (33.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,317 (37.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 938 (15.2%) had a female householder with no husband present, 356 (5.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 484 (7.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 56 (0.9%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,064 households (33.5%) were made up of individuals and 919 (14.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48. There were 3,611 families (58.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.18.

The population was spread out with 3,981 people (24.8%) under the age of 18, 1,562 people (9.7%) aged 18 to 24, 4,184 people (26.0%) aged 25 to 44, 4,011 people (25.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 2,337 people (14.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.9 years. For every 100 females there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males.

There were 6,488 housing units at an average density of 1,373.8 per square mile (530.4/km²), of which 2,673 (43.4%) were owner-occupied, and 3,485 (56.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.6%; the rental vacancy rate was 3.7%. 6,733 people (41.9% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,568 people (53.3%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

WorldsLargestRedwoodTreeServiceStation
The "World's Largest Redwood Tree Service Station" in Ukiah is built largely from a massive section of Sequoia.

As of the census of 2000, inside the city limits, there were 15,497 people in the city limits, 5,985 households, and 3,656 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,275/sq mi (1,265/km²). There were 6,137 housing units at an average density of 1,296/sq mi (501/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.5% White, 1.0% African American, 3.8% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.7% from other races, and 4.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.3% of the population.

There were 5,985 households out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.9% were non-families. 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.12.

In the city, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,707, and the median income for a family was $39,524. Males had a median income of $31,608 versus $24,673 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,601. About 13.2% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.4% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.

As a community, Ukiah has roughly twice the number of people (including Redwood Valley, Potter Valley, Calpella, and Talmage) than the census reports. During the business day, an average of 40,000 people work inside the city limits, or in the business and residential neighborhoods to the north and south.

Arts and culture

The Sun House
Grace Hudson's Sun House; designed by Grace and John Hudson circa 1911 in the Craftsman style

Institutions of the arts include:

  • Ukiah Players Theatre
  • The Mendocino Ballet
  • Ukiah Civic Light Opera
  • Grace Hudson Museum
  • Ukiah Symphony Orchestra
  • The Spring House

In popular culture

  • "Ukiah" is the name and subject of a song on the 1973 Doobie Brothers album The Captain and Me.
  • Ukiah is featured prominently in C.D. Payne's novel Youth in Revolt.
  • Ukiah is briefly mentioned in the 1987 film Dragnet.
  • Ukiah is one of six original locations of an International Latitude Observatory.
  • Some Ukiah-area soils are likely to contain naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), as do many other parts of California.
  • Competing in the men's Division III club level bracket, the Mendocino Steam Donkeys Rugby Football Club rugby union team, based in the Ukiah area, are the first official NCRFU team in the county.
  • Ukiah is also well known as the home of the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. Located east of Ukiah, the 488-acre (1.97 km2) temple is one of the largest Mahayana Buddhist communities in the Western Hemisphere. North of town is Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery, a community in the Thai Forest Tradition of Theravada Buddhism.
  • Ukiah's newspaper is the Ukiah Daily Journal.
  • Ukiah is featured in the 2016 Czech video game, American Truck Simulator

Images for kids


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