kids encyclopedia robot

James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Quick facts for kids

The Earl Stanhope

James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg
Portrait by Godfrey Kneller
First Lord of the Treasury
In office
12 April 1717 – 21 March 1718
Monarch George I
Preceded by Robert Walpole
Succeeded by The Earl of Sunderland
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
15 April 1717 – 20 March 1718
Monarch George I
Preceded by Robert Walpole
Succeeded by John Aislabie
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
In office
12 December 1716 – 12 April 1717
Monarch George I
Preceded by The Viscount Townshend
Succeeded by The Earl of Sunderland
In office
16 March 1718 – 4 February 1721
Monarch George I
Preceded by The Earl of Sunderland
Succeeded by The Lord Carteret
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
In office
27 September 1714 – 22 June 1716
Monarch George I
Preceded by The Viscount Bolingbroke
Succeeded by Paul Methuen
Personal details
Born c. 1673 (1673-09-26UTC07:12:40)
Paris, Kingdom of France
Died 5 February 1721 (1721-02-06)
London, England, Kingdom of Great Britain
Nationality English
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Lucy Pitt (1692–1723)
Children 7
Parents Alexander Stanhope
Katherine Burghill
Alma mater Trinity College, Oxford

James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope PC (c. 1673 – 5 February 1721) was a British soldier, diplomat and statesman who effectively served as Chief Minister between 1717 and 1721.

Born in Paris as the son of a prominent diplomat, Stanhope pursued a military career. Although he also served in Flanders and Italy, he is best remembered for his service in Portugal and Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was the first British Governor of Minorca, which he captured from the Spanish in 1708.

In 1710 he commanded the British contingent of the Allied Army which occupied Madrid having won a decisive victory at the Battle of Zaragoza. Having then evacuated the Spanish capital, Stanhope's rearguard on the retreat to Barcelona were overwhelmed and forced to surrender at Brihuega.

Paroled, he returned to Britain and pursued a political career as a Whig. A supporter of the Hanoverian Succession he was rewarded with office by George I in 1714. As Southern Secretary he oversaw the negotiation of an Anglo-French Alliance. Emerging as the dominant figure in government after 1717, following the Whig Split, he led Britain to success in a new Spanish War and suppressed a Jacobite Rising in 1719. However the government was overtaken by the collapse of the South Sea Bubble and he died in office. He is occasionally mentioned as an alternative candidate to Robert Walpole as Britain's first Prime Minister.

Images for kids

kids search engine
James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.