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John B. Magruder facts for kids

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John Bankhead Magruder
John B Magruder.jpg
Nickname(s) "Prince John"
Born (1807-05-01)May 1, 1807
Port Royal, Virginia, United States
Died February 18, 1871(1871-02-18) (aged 63)
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Place of burial
Episcopal Cemetery, Galveston, Texas
Allegiance  United States
 Confederate States
Bandera del Segundo Imperio Mexicano (1864-1867).svg Second Mexican Empire
Service/branch  United States Army
 Confederate States of America Army
Years of service 1830–1861 (U.S. Army)
1861–1865 (Confederate Army)
Rank Captain
Bvt. Lieutenant Colonel (USA)
Major General (CSA)
Commands held
  • Army of the Peninsula
  • Magruder's Division
  • District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
  • Department of Arkansas
Battles/wars Second Seminole War
Mexican–American War
American Civil War
Other work Lawyer, lecturer

John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 18, 1871) was an American and Confederate military officer. A graduate of West Point, Magruder served with distinction during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848) and was a prominent Confederate Army general during the American Civil War (1861–1865). As a major general, he received recognition for delaying the advance of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's prodigiously large force, the Army of the Potomac, during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, as well as recapturing Galveston, Texas the following year.

When the Civil War began in 1861, Magruder left the Union Army to accept a commission in the Confederacy. As commander of the Army of the Peninsula, he fortified the Virginia Peninsula and won the Battle of Big Bethel. In the Peninsula Campaign, he stalled McClellan's Army of the Potomac outside Yorktown, allowing Maj. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to arrive with reinforcements, organize a retreat, and defend the Confederate capital, Richmond. Magruder was criticized for his leadership in battles at Savage's Station and Malvern Hill during the Seven Days Battles. He spent the remainder of the war administering the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona and the Department of Arkansas; in his tenure, Magruder lifted the naval blockade over Galveston and recaptured the city in 1863.

After surrendering the Trans-Mississippi Department in June 1865, Magruder fled to Mexico. He worked in an administrative role under Emperor Maximillian I before returning to the United States in 1867. In 1869, he embarked on a lecture tour, speaking on the Mexican monarchy.

Magruder died in Houston in 1871.

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