Nicholas II of Russia facts for kids

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Nicholas II
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Nicholas II of Russia painted by Earnest Lipgart.jpg
Reign 1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917
Born 18 May 1868
Birthplace Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died 17 July 1918 age 50
Place of death Yekaterinburg, Russia
Predecessor Alexander III of Russia
Successor Empire ended, next Russian Head of State and Government is Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.
Consort Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
Children Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna
Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich
Royal House House of Romanov
Father Alexander III of Russia
Mother Dagmar Maria Fyodrovna of Denmark

Nicholas II of Russia, (May 18, 1868July 17, 1918) was the last Tsar or Emperor of the Russian Empire. He became Tsar in 1894 after his father, Tsar Alexander III died. He married Princess Alix of Hesse, who was the granddaughter of Queen Victoria, and they had five children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexi. Alexi suffered from a disease called haemophilia, which caused his parents great sadness.

Soviet historians portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects.

Russia was defeated in the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War which saw the annihilation of the reinforcing Russian Baltic Fleet after being sent on its round-the-world cruise at the naval Battle of Tsushima, off the coasts of Korea and Japan, the loss of Russian influence over Manchuria and Korea, and the Japanese annexation to the north of South Sakhalin Island. The Anglo-Russian Entente was designed to counter the German Empire's attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, but it also ended the Great Game of confrontation between Russia and the United Kingdom. When all Russian diplomatic efforts to prevent the First World War (1914–1918) failed, Nicholas approved the Imperial Russian Army mobilization on 30 July 1914 which gave Imperial Germany formal grounds to declare war on Russia on 1 August 1914. An estimated 3.3 million Russians were killed in the First World War. The Imperial Russian Army's severe losses, the High Command's incompetent management of the war efforts, and lack of food and supplies on the home front were all leading causes of the fall of the House of Romanov.

Following the February Revolution of 1917, Nicholas abdicated on behalf of himself and his son and heir, the Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich.

He and his family were held as prisoners under house arrest. On July 17, 1918, Nicholas, his wife, and their children were killed by a firing squad. In 1981, the Tsar and his family were made Saints by the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1990, the bones of the Tsar and his family were found in the woods and given a proper burial in 1998.

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