Airdrie, North Lanarkshire facts for kids
Airdrie town centre
|Airdrie shown within North Lanarkshire|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Airdrie (//; Scottish Gaelic: An t-Àrd Ruigh) is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It lies on a plateau roughly 400 ft (130 m) above sea level, and is approximately 12 miles (19 km) east of Glasgow city centre. Airdrie forms part of a conurbation with its neighbour Coatbridge, in the former district known as the Monklands. As of 2012[update], the town had a population of 37,130. Chapelhall, Calderbank, Caldercruix, Gartness, Glenmavis, Greengairs, Longriggend, Moffat Mills, Plains, Stand, Upperton and Wattston are generally considered satellite villages of Airdrie.
The origin of Airdrie's name first appeared in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland (Registrum Magni Sigilii Regum Scotorum) in 1373 as Ardre. By 1546 it had become Ardry and by 1587 it was known as Ardrie. In 1630 it finally appeared in the Register as Airdrie. Given the topography of the area, the most likely interpretation is that the name derives from the Gaelic An Àrd Ruigh meaning a level height or high pasture land. Another possibility is that it is from the Gaelic An Àrd Àirighe meaning a sheiling, a summer pasture/shepherd's hut. A third possibility is the Gaelic Ard Reidh meaning a high plain.
|Glenboig||Glenmavis, Cumbernauld||Greengairs, Falkirk|
|Coatbridge (Coatdyke), Glasgow||Bathgate, Livingston|
|Coatbridge (Carnbroe)||Calderbank, Motherwell, Wishaw||Chapelhall, Lanark|
North Lanarkshire Council divides Airdrie into the following wards and areas:
- Ward 7 – Airdrie North: Glenmavis, Caldercruix, Plains, Burnfoot, Thrashbush, Rochsoles, Holehills, Clarkston, Greengairs, Longriggend
- Ward 8 – Airdrie Central: Airdrie Town Centre, Whinhall, Coatdyke, Gartlea, North Cairnhill, Central Park Area, Rawyards
- Ward 11 – Airdrie South: Craignuek, Petersburn, Moffat Mills, Chapelhall, Calderbank, Brownsburn, South Cairnhill, Gartness
|Climate data for Airdrie, United Kingdom|
|Record high °C (°F)||15
|Average high °C (°F)||6
|Average low °C (°F)||1
|Record low °C (°F)||-17
|Precipitation mm (inches)||86.9
The claim of a link between the modern town of Airdrie and the ancient battle of Arderyth has no evidence to back it up and is therefore best regarded as spurious. Unified the patronage of King Malcolm IVth Cistercian monks established an abbey at Melrose in 1136. Five years later a daughter house was founded at Newbattle in Lothian. In 1160 Malcolm granted to the monks of Newbattle lands in central Scotland which became known as the "Munklands" (Register of the Great Seal 1323). Malcolm's Charter constitutes the oldest documentary record of place-names in the Monklands. The area of land granted by the Charter is clearly defined by direct reference to geographical and topographical features thus: Dunpeldre by its right boundaries, namely with Metheraugh and Mayeuth and Clarnephin as far as Dunduffes in the east. The name Dunpeldre is found in the modern name Drumpellier; Metheraugh is now Medrox; Mayeuth is now Myvot; Clarnephin refers to the North Calder Water in the east of the parish (from old Brittonic name claur n afon meaning plain of the river); and, finally, Dunduffes has become directly translated into the modern Black Hill which, as the Charter states, lies at the eastern extremity of the parish. The one thing this Charter does not make any reference to is anything resembling Airdrie yet this is where Airdrie is located.
Airdrie owes its existence to its location on the 'Hogs Back' – a ridge of land running from east to west. One very important aspect of the town’s history were the Cistercian monks of Newbattle Abbey, hence a name for the wider area; Monklands. The monks were farmers and most of the land they used is known today as 'The Four Isles' (a housing estate named after four Scottish islands): Mull, Islay, Iona and Luing in the Petersburn area of modern Airdrie. The monks of Newbattle had numerous establishments throughout the area including a farm grange at Drumpellier, Coatbridge, a court house at Kipps, a chapel in the area of Chapelhall and a number of corn mills. The Monks were also expert in the construction of roads. In the 12th century they established the original Glasgow to Edinburgh road via Airdrie and Bathgate, to link up with their lands in Newbattle in East Lothian.
In those days travelling was often dangerous. Horses were still very rare and could only be afforded by the rich. Low-lying ground was usually extremely difficult to navigate because of the numerous bogs, forests and burns – not to mention the possibility of ambush by a footpad or robber. Hence, it became much more practical to travel on the high ground (the 'High Way') where one could avoid the mud and the robbers. These roads (or rather tracks) became known as the King's Highway.
Definitive evidence of the existence of Airdrie as a tenantry was only made clear in 1503. The old monks' road was via Cliftonhill (an area now in neighbouring Coatbridge), Airdrie House (now the site of Monklands Hospital), Aitchison Street, High Street, Hallcraig Street, Flowerhill Street and Colliertree Road. It was along this road that the first houses in Airdrie were built. Development was slow and it was only around 1650 that evidence of the number of inhabitants was known at around 500 for the Airdrie area. A large contingent of Airdrieonians fought at the Battle of Bothwell Brig during the Covenanter Rebellion of 1679; their banner can still be viewed at the local library.
A significant event in Airdrie's history was the 1695 passing of a special Act of Parliament in the Scottish Parliament allowing Robert Hamilton of Airdrie to hold four fairs yearly and a weekly market in the town of 'Airdry'. This helped develop Airdrie from a 'farm town' into a thriving 'market town'.
However, Airdrie really came to prominence through its weaving industry. Airdrie Weavers Society was founded in 1781 and flax was being grown in sixteen farms in and around the burgh. In the last decade of the eighteenth century, coal mining was in progress and around thirty colliers were employed. Weaving continued to flourish making up a substantial part of the population of over 2,500 around the turn of the 19th century. Given its large number of weavers, its geographic location, and a large number of unemployed soldiers following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Airdrie became a major centre of support for the Radical War of 1820. The rapid pace of population growth continued and by 1821 there were 4,862 inhabitants. At this time the number of houses being built increased dramatically and in 1821, by a private Act of Parliament, Airdrie became a free and independent Burgh of Barony. Due to the fact it was 'independent', it had all the powers of a Royal Burgh.
Voting in the early part of the nineteenth century was rather hit or miss as not only locals but residents outside the burgh were allowed to vote. In 1821 the first election of a town council took place and by August it had appointed an assessor, procurator fiscal, master of police and a town crier.
In 1824 it was decided to build the Town House, which was originally designed by Alexander Baird and is now a local landmark known as the 'town clock'. In 1832 the Town House was used as a hospital due to the cholera outbreak of this year.
By 1850, the population had grown to 12,418.
1850 to 1920
The enormous growth in population was not due to high birthrate, but instead due to an influx of residents from the Highlands and predominantly Ireland. This followed the Highland potato famine of the mid-1840s and also reflected the change from cottage industry to heavy industry in the area. Most of the Irish immigrant population were involved with mining and labouring. This led to an increase in ironwork foundries around the area. Because of this explosion in industry, railway links were soon established (circa 1830) and by 1862, the Airdrie and Bathgate Junction Railway provided a direct link to Edinburgh with Airdrie South Station providing the starting point for trains to Glasgow.
In August the Public Libraries Act (Scotland) 1853 was passed, and in November Airdrie Public Library became the first in Scotland.
The dramatic rise in population and industry prompted the need for more accessible water supplies. Until the mid-1800s, various wells were put in place feeding from surrounding streams in the area. These served to provide many houses with private wells. By 1846 Airdrie and Coatbridge Water Company was founded to construct (along with Forth and Clyde Canal Company) the reservoir at Roughrigg.
Around the mid-1800s, several local newspapers began appearing and notably the Airdrie & Coatbridge Advertiser, which is still the most popular local paper today. Also at this time, football and cricket began to emerge as popular sports. Following the codification of association football rules a local team called Excelsior was formed in 1878 which would later be renamed Airdrieonians Horse race meetings were also held in the town (1851–1870) but this land became the golf course for the newly formed Airdrie Golf Club in 1877.
Education posed a major problem with severe overcrowding in the few schools available, therefore three new school boards were established. Fees were routinely charged within the schools with the belief they should be self-supporting until a parliamentary act of 1889 relieved some of the infant classes in schools of this burden. Airdrie Academy was built in 1895 and by 1919 all school boards were dissolved and Lanarkshire Education Authority took over responsibility for education throughout Lanarkshire.
Airdrie Public Observatory, one of only four public observatories in the UK (Second Oldest and Smallest)- all in Scotland, was founded in the first library building in 1896, and is still operated in the present building by the Airdrie Astronomical Association a Scottish astronautic and astronomy society and registered charity.
By the turn of the century variety shows were becoming popular in the area and by 1911 the Pavilion in Graham Street was built which after initially being used as a music hall started showing cinematographic pictures. Unfortunately it was destroyed by fire in 1917 but was rebuilt in 1919 and finally closed in 1970. The New Cinema was opened in 1920 in Broomknoll Street but it too has since closed. The town had no suitable venue for larger functions so in 1912 the Sir John Wilson Town Hall was opened (following a generous offer from Sir John Wilson covering the total cost of £13,500). This still stands and is used for major events in the town.
At the end of the First World War, Airdrie was hard hit with many casualties from the war. Many inhabitants also chose to emigrate around this time. Consequently, the population only rose by 3% to around 26,000 by 1931. The depression years had made a great impact on the town and several well-known manufacturers ceased to exist and few replaced them. It was reported that 50% of the registered population were unemployed. Church groups tried to provide some comfort for the poor folk in the area and set up educational and work experience projects to help and by 1936 the Airdrie Churches Council had attracted national interest through their work culminating in a building in Graham Street being provided for them (the Mutual Service Club). This is now Airdrie Community Centre.
The current Airdrie Public Library building was eventually constructed on its present site in 1925 after years of moving from one site to another.
Conditions in the town did not really improve until well after the Second World War but in 1949 the Boots pharmaceutical company and Banner Textiles Ltd were attracted to the town (between them employing 1200). With this impetus, new companies began to consider Airdrie as a viable option for business and in 1958 Pye opened employing over 1000 people. The emergence of industrial estates was also prevalent around this time (Newhouse, Chapelhall, and Brownsburn). The Airdrie Arts Centre opened in 1967 in the former Airdrie Library building and remained a popular venue for concerts and plays till it was closed in 2012 by North Lanarkshire Council.
The 1970s saw the opening of Monklands Hospital, which replaced an older hospital on the Airdrie House estate that had been closed in 1962 and demolished in 1964.
Airdrie town centre has changed much in the last ten years with a new road scheme and a shift in emphasis with the type of shopping it offers. Graham Street, the main pedestrianised street, has recently been refurbished and has had the pedestrian precinct area upgraded. New housing developments are being built around this suitably situated commuter town, notably in Chapelhall, Rochsoles and Glenmavis, the former Boots factory site in Rawyards and the former Imperial Tube Works in Cairnhill.
Airdrie also has signage in the Scots Gaelic language around the town centre, (alongside English) this was first introduced for the 1993 Royal National Mòd. The signs were originally erected by Monklands District Council, but have been maintained by North Lanarkshire Council.
Local Orange heritage
Scottish regiments returning from service in Ireland brought the first Orange Lodge to Scotland in 1798 with warrants granted by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland. The first civilian lodge was set up in Maybole, Ayrshire, in 1808 and a Grand Lodge was set up in Britain which issued its own warrants and its first Grand Master in 1821 was H.R.H. The Duke of York and Albany, and the second being H.R.H. The 1st Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale. In 1824, L.O.L. 19 was established in Airdrie under the British Grand Lodge. When the Grand Secretary, Colonel Fairman, with other gentlemen visited Airdrie in 1833, their carriages were met a mile from town by a procession of Orangemen with banners and a band to parade into the town which was thronged with people. Two years later when the Orangemen of the town paraded in the streets to celebrate the Twelfth they were met by a party of opposing Ribbonmen, most of whom came from Glasgow. The Orangemen returned to their Lodge whilst police and towns people dealt with the Ribbonmen. When the Grand Lodge was set up in 1836 Airdrie was given the honour of being granted its first District warrant hence District No 1 and of its new Lodge warrants No 1 Moodiesburn, No 2 Chryston, No 6 Drumgelloch, No 8 Gartsherrie and No 9 Shotts. It still retains the number of two of the Lodges that existed prior to 1836 namely L.O.L. 19 and L.O.L. 6.
The first united July Demonstration of Lodges was held in Airdrie District territory of Moodiesburn on 12 July 1857 led by Dr. Clements, Deputy Grand Master. Important years in the history of Airdrie District No 1 include 1891, when Bro. Colonel Sanderson MP opened the Orange Hall in Greengairs and then traveled to Airdrie to lay the foundation stone of the Orange Halls in Baillies Lane, which opened later that year. On the 100th anniversary of the foundation being laid, Thursday 13 June 1991 the R.W.D.M. Bro. Parks unveiled a plaque to commemorate this event. Monklands District Council afforded a civic reception to Airdrie District LOL 1 to mark the 200th anniversary of the foundation of the Orange Order. The District Lodge celebrated its 150th Anniversary in 1986 and after various functions the R.W.D.M. Bro. A. Blaney unveiled a plaque to commemorate their anniversary.
Airdrie hosted the National Mòd in 1993.
Places of interest
- Airdrie Arts Centre – originally a Carnegie library.
- Airdrie Public Library
- Airdrie Public Observatory – with its celebrated Cooke telescope.
- Black Hill transmitting station – the tallest structure in Scotland.
- Centenary and West End Parks – including the Airdrie Cenotaph and the Centenary Railway Viaduct (1866).
- Drumbowie World War II Anti-aircraft battery – site number N12, part of the Clyde AA defences. Situated just outside Glenmavis.
- Monkland Canal – where the Vulcan (barge), the world's first iron boat, was constructed and launched in 1819.
- New Monklands Parish Church
- The Wallace Stone – legend tells that William Wallace sharpened his sword on this stone on his way to the Battle of Falkirk.
- Sir John Wilson Town Hall
- Airdrie and District Round Table
- Army Cadet Force – Glasgow and Lanarkshire Battalion
- Boys' Brigade – Airdrie, Coatbridge and District Battalion, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 11th companies.
- Girls' Brigade, 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th companies.
- Girl Guides (and Brownies) – County of North Lanarkshire
- Monklands Heritage Society
- Monklands Women's Aid – associated with Scottish Women's Aid, based at the One Wellwynd centre, provides support for women and children suffering from domestic abuse
- The Royal Scottish Geographical Society maintains a regional centre at the Airdrie Arts Centre
- The Scout Association – Clyde Region, Calder District, 5th Lanarkshire, 88th Lanarkshire and 126th Lanarkshire Troops
- Sea Cadet Corps – T.S. Enterprise
- YMCA – YWCA (Thrashbush & Petersburn) Out of School Care & Playranger Streetplay
These community centres are maintained by North Lanarkshire Council:
- Beechbank CC – located in Whinhall
- Chapelside CC – includes the Richard Stewart Nursery, North Airdrie Music Project, Chapelside Women's Health Project and an Adult Literacy centre
- Four Isles CC – located in Petersburn
- Gartlea CC
- Rochsoles CC
- Springfield CC – located in east-central Airdrie
- Victoria CC – located in west-central Airdrie
According to the 2001 Census, Airdrie's population of 36,326 was:
- 47.31 male, 52.69% female.
- 20.7% were under 16, 16.67% were pensioners.
- 46.61% were married (first marriage), 29.81% were single.
- 95.74% were born in Scotland or described their nationality as Scottish.
- only 0.42% spoke Gaelic.
Church of Scotland – Airdrie's Church of Scotland churches are part of the Presbytery of Hamilton.
- Broomknoll Church (1889) - amalgamated with Flowerhill Church to form Cairnlea Church in 2016
- Clarkston Church (1837)
- Flowerhill Church (1875) - amalgamated with Broomknoll Church to form Cairnlea Church in 2016
- High Church
- Jackson Church
- New Monkland Parish Church (bef. 1698) – In nearby Glenmavis.
- New Wellwynd (1834)
- St Columba's Church
Roman Catholic Church – Airdrie's Roman Catholic churches are immediately governed by the Diocese of Motherwell, currently led by Bishop Joseph Toal. The Bishops' Conference of Scotland (effectively the Church's headquarters in Scotland) is situated in Airdrie.
- St Andrew's Church (Whinhall)
- St Edward's Church (Gartlea)
- St Margaret's Church (Airdrie centre)
- St Serf's Church (Rawyards)
- St Aloysius Church (Chapelhall)
- Corpus Christi Church (Calderbank)
- Sacred Heart Church (Salsburgh)
- St David's Church (Plains)
- St Marys Church (Caldercruix
Congregational Church – Airdrie's Congregational churches are associated with the Congregational Federation.
- Coatdyke Church
- Ebenezer Church (Broomknoll Street) (1882)
- Pilgrim Church
- Airdrie Baptist Church (1843) – part of the Baptist Union of Scotland.
- Airdrie Islamic Centre (mosque) – part of the UK Islamic Mission.
- Airdrie Park – part of the United Reformed Church.
- Airdrie Reformed Presbyterian Church – part of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which is largely headquartered in Airdrie.
- The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints Chapel
- Ebenezer Church (Aitchison Street) – Evangelical Church – Airdrie's Evangelical churches are Brethren and associated with the Evangelical Alliance.
- Jehovah's Witnesses' Kingdom Hall
- The Salvation Army, Airdrie Corps
- St Andrew's Hospice – operated by the Sisters of Charity.
- St Paul & St John the Baptist – part of the Scottish Episcopal Church, governed by the Diocese of Glasgow and Galloway, currently led by Idris Jones, Primus of the whole Church.
Airdrie railway station is on the electrified North Clyde Line. This railway provides a frequent train service to Glasgow via Coatbridge Sunnyside and Easterhouse. In 2010, the Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link re-opened providing Airdrie with a direct commuter train service to Bathgate, Livingston North and Edinburgh Waverley. Drumgelloch railway station serves the eastern end of the town.
Airdrie has road links to Glasgow, Edinburgh, Livingston, Motherwell, and Cumbernauld and is situated close to the M8 motorway. Bus services are largely undertaken by local operators, and links to Glasgow are provided by Arriva, First Glasgow and McGills.
Airdrie is connected to the UK National Cycle Network by National Cycle Route 75. This route provides a path between Glasgow and Edinburgh. According to the Sustrans website, this path has yet to fully reopen . Other than the Sustrans path, there are no cycle lanes in Airdrie.
Images for kids
Airdrie, North Lanarkshire Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.