Alfonso XIII facts for kids
Quick facts for kidsAlfonso XIII
The King in 1916
|King of Spain (more...)|
|Reign||17 May 1886 – 14 April 1931|
|Enthronement||17 May 1902|
Juan Carlos I (1975)
|Prime ministers||Práxedes Mateo Sagasta|
17 May 1886|
Royal Palace of Madrid, Madrid, Kingdom of Spain
|Died||28 February 1941
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (m. 1906)
|Father||Alfonso XII of Spain|
|Mother||Maria Christina of Austria|
Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African , was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. He was a monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902.
During Alfonso's reign of the Kingdom of Spain, the country experienced four major problems that contributed to the end of the liberal monarchy: the lack of real political representation of broad social groups; the poor situation of the popular classes, especially peasants; problems arising from the Rif War; and Catalan nationalism. The political and social turbulence that began with the Spanish–American War prevented the turnaround parties from establishing a true liberal democracy, which led to the establishment of the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. With the political failure of the dictatorship, Alfonso impelled a return to the democratic normality with the intention of regenerating the regime. Nevertheless, it was abandoned by all political classes, as they felt betrayed by the king's support of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera.
He left Spain voluntarily after the municipal elections of April 1931, which were taken as a plebiscite on abolishing the monarchy.
Alfonso was nicknamed "the Royal Knight of Charity" for his unprecedented work with the European War Office during World War I. For this great humanitarian endeavour, he was nominated to the Nobel Peace Prize in 1917, and came close to receiving the award, but this was ultimately won by the Red Cross. As of today, he remains the only monarch in history to have ever received a nomination to a Nobel Prize.
Images for kids
The nine sovereigns at Windsor for the funeral of King Edward VII, photographed on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of the Bulgarians, King Manuel II of Portugal and the Algarve, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and Prussia, King George I of the Hellenes and King Albert I of the Belgians. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King George V of the United Kingdom and King Frederick VIII of Denmark
Alfonso XIII visiting Verdun in 1919
King Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenie with their children at Santander's Palacio de la Magdalena. Standing, from left to right: Infanta María Cristina, the Prince of Asturias and Infanta Beatriz. Seated, from left to right: Infante Jaime, the Queen, the King, Infante Gonzalo and Infante Juan seated on ground
Alfonso XIII Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.