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Frederick County, Virginia facts for kids

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Frederick County
The Old Frederick County Courthouse in Winchester
Official seal of Frederick County
Map of Virginia highlighting Frederick County
Location within the U.S. state of Virginia
Map of the United States highlighting Virginia
Virginia's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Virginia
Founded 1743
Named for Frederick, Prince of Wales
Seat Winchester
Largest town Winchester
 • Total 416 sq mi (1,080 km2)
 • Land 414 sq mi (1,070 km2)
 • Water 2 sq mi (5 km2)  0.5%
 • Total 78,305
 • Estimate 
 • Density 188.23/sq mi (72.68/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district 10th

Frederick County is located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 78,305. Its county seat is Winchester. The county was formed in 1743 by the splitting of Orange County. It is Virginia's northernmost county. Frederick County is included in the Winchester, VA-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area.


The area that would become Frederick County, Virginia was inhabited and transited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European colonization. The "Indian Road" refers to a historic pathway made by local tribes.

Frederick County was established in 1743 from parts of Orange County. (At that time, "Old Frederick County" encompassed all or part of four counties in present-day Virginia — Shenandoah, Clarke, Warren, and Frederick — and five in present-day West VirginiaHardy, Hampshire, Berkeley, Jefferson and Morgan.) The Virginia Assembly named the new county for Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales (1707–1751), the eldest son of King George II of Great Britain.

Colonial Era

As Commander-in-Chief of the new Colonial Virginia regiment in 1754, Colonel George Washington's headquarters were located in Winchester before and during the French and Indian War. He resigned from military service in 1758; only to be appointed General by the Continental Congress sixteen years later. Meanwhile, Washington represented Frederick County in his first elective office, having been elected to the House of Burgesses in 1758 and 1761. Daniel Morgan was another famous General during the American Revolutionary War, from (present day Clarke County).

American Civil War

Winchester changed hands between the Confederate and Union Armies on average once every three weeks during the war. Many battles were fought in Frederick County. Some of those battles include:

The first constitution of West Virginia provided for Frederick County to be added to the new state if approved by a local election. Unlike those of neighboring Berkeley and Jefferson counties, Frederick County residents voted to remain in Virginia despite being occupied by the Union Army at the time.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 416 square miles (1,080 km2), of which 414 square miles (1,070 km2) is land and 2 square miles (5.2 km2) (0.5%) is water. This is the northernmost county in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Adjacent counties

National protected areas


Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 19,681
1800 24,744 25.7%
1810 22,574 −8.8%
1820 24,706 9.4%
1830 26,046 5.4%
1840 14,242 −45.3%
1850 15,975 12.2%
1860 16,546 3.6%
1870 16,596 0.3%
1880 17,553 5.8%
1890 17,880 1.9%
1900 13,239 −26.0%
1910 12,787 −3.4%
1920 12,461 −2.5%
1930 13,167 5.7%
1940 14,008 6.4%
1950 17,537 25.2%
1960 21,941 25.1%
1970 28,893 31.7%
1980 34,150 18.2%
1990 45,723 33.9%
2000 59,209 29.5%
2010 78,305 32.3%
2019 (est.) 89,313 14.1%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790–1960 1900–1990
The drop from 1830 to 1840 was because
Clarke and Warren counties were split off.

As of the census of 2000, there were 59,209 people, 22,097 households, and 16,727 families residing in the county. The population density was 143 people per square mile (55/km2). There were 23,319 housing units at an average density of 56/square mile (22/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 94.99% White, 2.62% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, and 1.01% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 22,097 households, out of which 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.50% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.30% were non-families. 19.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 26.40% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 31.90% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, and 10.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $46,941, and the median income for a family was $52,281. Males had a median income of $35,705 versus $25,046 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,080. About 4.00% of families and 6.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.30% of those under age 18 and 6.90% of those age 65 or over.


Major Highways

  • US 340.svg U.S. Route 340
  • US 48.svg U.S. Route 48
  • Virginia 37.svg State Route 37
  • Virginia 55.svg State Route 55
  • Virginia 127.svg State Route 127
  • Virginia 259.svg State Route 259
  • Virginia 277.svg State Route 277


Map of Frederick County, Virginia with Municipal and District Labels
Map of Frederick County, Virginia with Municipal and Magisterial District Labels

Despite being the county seat, Winchester, like all cities under Virginia law, is an independent city—politically independent of any county.


Census-designated places

Other unincorporated communities


Frederick County is served by Frederick County Public Schools, which includes several elementary, middle, and high schools. Frederick County is also part of the region served by the Mountain Vista Governor's School, which offers upper-level classes to intellectually gifted high school students.


Elementary schools

  • Apple Pie Ridge Elementary School
  • Armel Elementary School
  • Bass-Hoover Elementary School
  • Evendale Elementary School
  • Gainesboro Elementary School
  • Greenwood Mill Elementary School
  • Indian Hollow Elementary School
  • Jordan Springs Elementary School
  • Middletown Elementary School
  • Orchard View Elementary School
  • Redbud Run Elementary School
  • Stonewall Elementary School

Middle schools

  • Admiral Richard E. Byrd Middle School
  • Frederick County Middle School
  • James Wood Middle School
  • Robert E. Aylor Middle School

High schools

  • James Wood High School
  • Millbrook High School
  • Sherando High School


  • Lord Fairfax Community College


  • Shenandoah University


  • Handley Regional Library

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