kids encyclopedia robot

Uxbridge, Massachusetts facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Quick facts for kids
Congregational Church and Civil War Memorial
Congregational Church and Civil War Memorial
Flag of Uxbridge
Official seal of Uxbridge
"Home of America's 1st Woman Voter" "A Crossroads Village"
"Weaving a Tapestry of Early America"
Location in Worcester County and the state of Massachusetts.
Location in Worcester County and the state of Massachusetts.
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Worcester
Settled 1662
Incorporated 1727
 • Type Open Town Meeting
 • Total 30.4 sq mi (78.7 km2)
 • Land 29.5 sq mi (76.5 km2)
 • Water 0.8 sq mi (2.1 km2)
270 ft (82 m)
 • Total 13,892 (estimate)
 • Density 442.66/sq mi (170.77/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4 (Eastern)
ZIP code
01569, 01538, 01525
Area code(s) 508 / 774
FIPS code 25-71620
GNIS feature ID 0618387

Uxbridge is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts first settled in 1662, incorporated in 1727, originally part of Suffolk County, and Mendon, and named for the Earl of Uxbridge. The town (population 13,892, estimate) is located 36 mi (58 km) southwest of Boston and 15 mi (24 km) south-southeast of Worcester, at the midpoint of the Blackstone Valley National Historic Park. Two Uxbridge Quakers served as national leaders in the American anti-slavery movement. Uxbridge "weaves a tapestry of early America"

Indigenous Nipmuc people near 'Wacentug" (river bend), deeded land to 17th century settlers. Uxbridge granted rights to America's first woman voter, Lydia Chapin Taft. The first hospital for mental illness in America was established here. Deborah Sampson posed as an Uxbridge soldier, and fought in the American Revolution. A 140-year legacy of manufacturing military uniforms and clothing began with 1820 power looms. The Board of Selectmen approved Massachusetts's first women jurors. Uxbridge became famous for woolen cashmeres. "Uxbridge Blue", was the first US Air Force Dress Uniform. BJ's Wholesale Club distribution warehouse looms large here today.


Colonial era, Revolution, Quakers, and abolition

John Eliot started Nipmuc Praying Indian villages. "Wacentug" natives sold land to settlers in 1662, "for 24 pound Ster". Mendon began in 1667, and burned in King Phillips War. Western Mendon became Uxbridge in 1727, and Farnum House held the first town meeting. Nathan Webb's church, was the Colony's first new Congregational church in the Great Awakening. Lydia Chapin Taft, voted in the 1756 Town meeting, a first for women.

Seth and Joseph Read. and Simeon Wheelock joined Committees of Correspondence. Baxter Hall, was a Minuteman drummer. Seth Read fought at Bunker Hill. Washington stopped at Reed's tavern, en route to command the Continental Army. Samuel Spring, was one of the first chaplains of the American Revolution. Deborah Sampson, enlisted as "Robert Shurtlieff of Uxbridge". Shays' Rebellion also began here and Governor John Hancock quelled Uxbridge riots. Seth Reed was instrumental in adding E pluribus unum to U.S. coins. Washington slept here on his Inaugural tour.

Jacob Aldrich House, National Historic Site, Uxbridge, MA
Jacob Aldrich House; Quaker style house..

Quakers, including Richard Mowry migrated here from Smithfield, Rhode Island, and built mills, railroads, houses, tools and Conestoga wagon wheels. Southwick's store housed the "Social and Instructive Library". Friends Meetinghouse, next to Moses Farnum's farm, had prominent abolitionists Abby Kelley Foster, and Effingham Capron as members. Capron led the 450 member local anti-slavery society. Brister Pierce, formerly a slave in Uxbridge, was a signer of an 1835 petition to Congress demanding abolition of slavery and the slave trade in the District of Columbia.

Early transportation, education, public health and safety

The Tafts built the Middle Post Road's Blackstone River bridge in 1709. "Teamsters" drove horse "team" freight wagons, on the Worcester-Providence stage route. The Blackstone Canal brought horsedrawn barges to Providence through Uxbridge for overnight stops. The "crossroads village" was a junction on the Underground Railroad. The P&W Railroad ended canal traffic in 1848.

A 1732 vote "set up a school for ye town of Uxbridge". A grammar school was followed by 13 one room district school houses, built for $2000 in 1797. Uxbridge Academy (1818), became a prestigious New England Prep School.

Uxbridge voted against smallpox vaccine . Samuel Willard (physician) treated smallpox victims, was a forerunner of modern psychiatry, and ran the first hospital for mental illness in America. Vital records recorded many infant deaths, the smallpox death of Selectman Joseph Richardson, "Quincy", "dysentary", and tuberculosis deaths. Leonard White recorded a Malaria outbreak here in 1896 that led to firsts in control of malaria as a mosquito-borne infection. Uxbridge led Massachusetts in robberies for a quarter of the year in 1922, and the town voted to hire its first night time police patrolman.

Industrial era: 19th century to late-20th century

Bog iron and three iron forges marked the colonial era, with the inception of large-scale industries beginning around 1775—examples of this development can be seen in the work of Richard Mowry, who built and marketed equipment to manufacture woolen, linen, or cotton cloth, and gristmills, sawmills, distilleries, and large industries. Uxbridge reached a peak of twenty different industrial mills. Daniel Day built the first woolen mill in 1809. By 1855, 560 local workers made 2,500,000 yards (2,300,000 m) of cloth (14,204 miles (22,859 km)). A small silver vein at Scadden, in SW Uxbridge, led to unsuccessful commercial mining in the 1830s.

2 Capron Street, Uxbridge
Charles Capron House, 2 Capron Street. The Capron family was prominent in the Industrial era at Uxbridge Center where Capron Mill is located.

Innovations included power looms, vertical integration of wool to clothing, cashmere wool-synthetic blends, "wash and wear", yarn spinning techniques, and latch hook kits. Villages included mills, shops, worker housing, and farms. Wm. Arnold's Ironstone cotton mill, later made "Kentucky Blue Jeans", and Seth Read's gristmill, later housed Bay State Arms. Hecla and Wheelockville housed American Woolen, Waucantuck Mill, Hilena Lowell's shoe factory, and Draper Corporation. Daniel Day, Jerry Wheelock, and Luke Taft used water powered mills. Moses Taft's (Central Woolen) operated continuously making Civil War cloth,

North Uxbridge housed Clapp's 1810 Cotton Mill, Chandler Taft's and Richard Sayles Rivulet Mill, the granite quarry, and Rogerson's village. Crown and Eagle Mill was "a masterpiece of early industrial architecture". Blanchard's granite quarry provided curb stones to New York City and regional public works projects. Peter Rawson Taft's grandson, William Howard Taft, visited Samuel Taft House.

John Sr., Effingham and John W. Capron's mill pioneered US satinets and woolen power looms Charles A. Root, Edward Bachman, and Harold Walter expanded Bachman-Uxbridge., and leadership in women's fashion. The company manufactured US Army uniforms for the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the nurse corps, and the first Air Force "dress uniforms", dubbed "Uxbridge Blue". Time magazine covered Uxbridge Worsted's proposed a buyout to be the top US woolen company. One of the largest US yarn companies, Bernat Yarn's largest plant was located here from the 1960s to the 1980s. A historic company called 'Information Services', operated from Uxbridge, and managed subscription services for 'The New Republic', among other publications, in the later 20th century.

Late-20th century to present

State and national parks developed around mills and rivers were restored. The Great Gatsby (1974) and Oliver's Story (1978) were filmed locally including Stanley Woolen Mill. The Blackstone Valley National Historic Park contains the 1,000-acre (4.0 km2)Blackstone Canal Heritage State Park, 9 miles (14 km) of the Blackstone River Greenway, the Southern New England Trunkline Trail, West Hill Dam, a 567-acre wildlife refuge, parcels of the Metacomet Land Trust, and Cormier Woods. 60 Federalist homes add to 54 National, and 375 state-listed historic sites, including Georgian Elmshade, (where War Secretary Alphonso Taft had recounted local family history at a famous reunion). Capron's wooden mill survived a 2007 fire at the Bernat Mill. Stanley mill is being restored while Waucantuck mill, was (mostly) razed. In 2013 multiple fires again affected this town and included a historic bank building and a Quaker home from the early 1800s. See National historic sites.


The town is 30.4 square miles (79 km2), of which 0.8 square miles (2.1 km2), or 2.73%, is water. It is situated 39.77 miles (64.00 km) southwest of Boston, 16 miles (26 km) southeast of Worcester, and 20 miles (32 km) northwest of Providence. Elevations range from 200 feet (61 m) to 577 feet (176 m) above sea level. It borders Douglas, Mendon, Millville, Northbridge, and Sutton, Massachusetts, plus the Rhode Island towns of Burrillville and North Smithfield.

Adjacent Cities and towns


A USDA hardiness zone 5 continental climate prevails with snowfall extremes from October (rare), to May. The highest recorded temperature was 104 F, in July 1975, and the lowest, -25 F in January 1957.

Climate data for Uxbridge, Massachusetts
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 37
Average low °F (°C) 13
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.6


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1850 2,457 —    
1860 3,133 +27.5%
1870 3,058 −2.4%
1880 3,111 +1.7%
1890 3,408 +9.5%
1900 3,599 +5.6%
1910 4,671 +29.8%
1920 5,384 +15.3%
1930 6,285 +16.7%
1940 6,417 +2.1%
1950 7,007 +9.2%
1960 7,789 +11.2%
1970 8,253 +6.0%
1980 8,374 +1.5%
1990 10,415 +24.4%
2000 11,156 +7.1%
2010 13,457 +20.6%
2015 13,892 +3.2%
* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.

The 2010 United States Census population was 13,457, representing a growth rate of 20.6%, with 5,056 households, a density rate of 166.31 units per square mile. 95.7% were White, 1.7% Asian, 0.90% Hispanic, 0.3% African American, and 1.4% other. Population density was 442.66 people/ mile2 (170.77/km²). Per capita income was $24,540, and 4.7% fell below the poverty line. The number of registered voters was 9,959 for 2010



The nearest MBTA Commuter Rail stops are Forge Park/495 on the Franklin Line and Grafton (MBTA station) and Worcester on the Framingham/Worcester Line, 15 miles away. The Northeast Corridor Providence (Amtrak station), has trains with top speeds of 150 MPH. The Providence and Worcester Railroad freight line passes two former local stations.


MA Route 146.svgRoute 146 links Worcester, I-290.svgI-290, and I-90.svgI-90, to Providence at I-95.svgI-95 and I-295.svg I-295. MA Route 16.svgRoute 16 links to Connecticut via I-395.svg I-395, and Boston, by I-495.svg I-495. MA Route 122.svg Route 122 connects Northbridge, and Woonsocket. MA Route 146A.svgRoute 146A, goes into North Smithfield. MA Route 98.svg Route 98 leads to Burrillville.


TF Green State Airport Warwick-Providence, RI, Worcester airport, and Boston Logan International Airport, have commercial flights. Hopedale airport, 7.2 miles (11.6 km), and Worcester airport, have general aviation. A private air strip, Sky Glen Airport on Quaker highway is still listed on FAA sites, though the map location shows it within a dense Industrial Park, and at its peak of operations, it saw very low traffic.

Points of interest


kids search engine
Uxbridge, Massachusetts Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.