Kingdom of the Netherlands facts for kids

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Kingdom of the Netherlands

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Coat of arms
Motto: I will maintain
Map of the four consitituent countries shown to scale
Map of the four consitituent countries shown to scale
Capital
and largest city
Amsterdam
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Government seat The Hague
Official languages Dutch
Demonym(s) Dutch
Countries (non‑sovereign parts)
Government Semi-federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Willem-Alexander
• Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Mark Rutte
• Minister Plenipotentiary of Aruba
Guillfred Besaril
• Minister Plenipotentiary of Curaçao
Anthony Begina
• Minister Plenipotentiary of Sint Maarten
Jorien Wuite
Independence from Spanish Netherlands
26 July 1581 (Declared)
30 January 1648 (Recognised)
• Batavian Republic
19 January 1795
5 June 1806
• Annexation by First French Empire
1 July 1810
• Kingdom of the Netherlands
16 March 1815
• Secession of Belgium
4 October 1830 (Declared)
19 April 1839 (Recognised)
• Charter for the Kingdom
(colonial inclusion)
15 December 1954
Area
• Total
42,508 km2 (16,412 sq mi) (136th)
• Water (%)
18.41
Population
• 2017-2018 estimate
17,610,262
• Density
414/km2 (1,072.3/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code NL

The Kingdom of the Netherlands commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).

The four parts of the kingdom—the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten—are constituent countries and participate on a basis of equality as partners in the kingdom. In practice, however, most of the kingdom's affairs are administered by the Netherlands. The Caribbean Sea islands countries of Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are dependent on the Netherlands for matters like foreign policy and defence.

The vast majority in land area of the constituent country of the Netherlands is located in Europe, with the exception of the Caribbean Netherlands: its three special municipalities (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are located in the Caribbean Sea like the other three constituent countries.

The Kingdom celebrated its bicentennial in a series of festive occasions spanning from 2013 to 2015, the last being the year of the actual 200th anniversary of the Kingdom.

History

The Kingdom of the Netherlands originated in the aftermath of French Emperor Napoleon I's defeat in 1815. In the year 1815, the Netherlands regained its independence from France under its First French Empire. The great powers of Europe, united against Napoleonic France, had decided in the secret treaty of the London Protocol to establish a single state.

In March 1815, amidst the turmoil of the Hundred Days, the Sovereign Prince William of Orange and Nassau adopted the style of "King of the Netherlands". Following Napoleon's second defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815, the Vienna Congress supplied international recognition of William's move. The new King of the Netherlands was also made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, a part of the Kingdom that was, at the same time, a member state of the German Confederation.

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