Chatham County, North Carolina facts for kids
Quick facts for kids
Chatham County Courthouse in Pittsboro
Location within the U.S. state of North Carolina
North Carolina's location within the U.S.
|Named for||William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham|
|Largest town||Siler City|
|• Total||710 sq mi (1,800 km2)|
|• Land||682 sq mi (1,770 km2)|
|• Water||28 sq mi (70 km2) 3.9%%|
| • Estimate
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
Chatham County is part of the Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,998,808 as of U.S. Census 2012 Population Estimates.
Some of the first settlers of what would become the county were English Quakers, who settled along the Haw and Eno rivers. The county was formed in 1771 from Orange County. It was named in 1758 for William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, who served as British Prime Minister from 1766 to 1768 and opposed harsh colonial policies. In 1907, parts of Chatham County and Moore County were combined to form Lee County.
The award-winning PBS documentary, Family Name, notes Chatham County as the place where men of the Alston family fathered children with African-American slaves, leading to Alston descendants who were African American, as well as white branches of the family.
George Moses Horton, Historic Poet Laureate of Chatham County, (1797?-1883) lived most of his life in Chatham County and is among the few slaves to have published material while still a slave.
Moncure once served as the westernmost inland port in the state, as steamships could travel between it and the coast.
On March 25, 2010, the Chatham County Courthouse, built in 1881, caught fire while undergoing renovations. It has now been rebuilt. For more information, see Pittsboro, North Carolina.
Spanning the southern border of Chatham County, the Deep River Coal Field contains the only known potentially economic bituminous coal deposits in the state. Coal was mined here artisanally in colonial times, and commercially beginning from the early 1850s.
The communities of Carbonton and Cumnock (formerly called Egypt in Lee County) developed with the coal mining industry. Much of the coal mined in the field during the Civil War was used for Confederate operations.
The Coal Glen Mine Disaster of the 1920s, frequent flooding by the Deep River, the depth of the coal seam, and faulting of the seam sealed the fate of the mines. Production ceased in 1953.
Agriculture and industry
The county was long dependent on agriculture as the basis of the economy. The area's relatively unfertile natural soil conditions (composed mostly of the hard red clay soil common to the Piedmont), did not support the cultivation of commodity cash crops such as tobacco; this was never important in the county's economy. The production of livestock has always been more important to the county, especially the breeding of cattle and poultry. The county once had a thriving dairy industry, but in recent years most farms have been sold and developed. The county is one of the state leaders in the poultry industry. Forage crops such as hay are also grown in large quantities in the county. Carolina Farm Stewardship Association has been housed in Chatham County along with many organic agriculture farmers including Councilman Farms and Phillips Dairy Farms.
Industrial growth in the county has been focused around the Siler City and Moncure areas of the county, with Moncure dominating. Companies in that area include, Progress Energy, Boise Cascade, Honeywell, and Arauco. Brick manufacturing, which makes use of the local red clay soil, has been an important economic factor in the Moncure area, with several brick plants operating there and in Brickhaven.
3M operates a greenstone mine south of Pittsboro along US 15-501. Greenstone is processed to manufacture roofing-shingle granules. In 2007, residents opposed to industrialization successfully blocked a similar quarry from being developed in the western part of the county.
The scenic rural environment has attracted many artists (Chatham Artists Guild), and arts-related tourism is a growing economic influence.
Chatham County has a deep tradition in southern music. Tommy Thompson, of the Red Clay Ramblers, and Tommy Edwards have entertained for decades with traditional, old time and bluegrass. Artists in many styles of music issue from this deep storehouse of talent, from rock and roll to big band. Of late, Shakori Hills Grassroots Festival of Music and Dance hosts various styles of music. A four-day outdoor festival is held twice each year, in April and October. Artists who have performed at Shakori Hills include Patty Loveless, Ralph Stanley, Hugh Masekela, Donna the Buffalo, Carolina Chocolate Drops, Avett Brothers and Jim Lauderdale. Shakori Hills is also the location of the Hoppin John Fiddlers Convention and Mountain Aid benefit concert.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles (1,800 km2), of which 682 square miles (1,770 km2) is land and 28 square miles (73 km2) (3.9%) is water.
The county lies totally within the Piedmont physiographic region. The topography of the county is generally gently rolling with several higher hills rising above the general terrain. One of these hills, Terrells Mountain, on the Orange County line is the transmitter site for several radio and TV stations for the Raleigh-Durham market, including WUNC-TV 4, WDCG(G105), WNCB (93.9 Kiss FM), and WUNC 91.5 FM (NC Public Radio).
The county lies within the Cape Fear River drainage basin. The Cape Fear River begins in the county near the community of Moncure, at the confluence of the Haw River and the Deep River below Jordan Lake. B. Everett Jordan Lake, a major reservoir and flood-control lake, is located within the New Hope River basin and lies mainly in eastern Chatham County. The lake is owned by the US Army Corps of Engineers and is partially leased by the state of North Carolina as Jordan Lake State Recreation Area.
Much of the eastern part of the county lies within the Triassic Basin, a subregion of the Piedmont. Much of the bedrock in the county is volcanic in origin and formed during the Triassic period (hence the name). The Triassic origins have led to the formation of coal deposits in the southern part of the county. The Boren Clay Products Pit just north of Gulf in extreme southern Chatham County is a place where Triassic flora fossils persist. The volcanic origins also led to the creation of high amounts of metamorphic-based rocks in the county. The county lies on the Carolina Slate Belt. Soils in the county are mostly clay based and have a deep red color, as do most soils in the Piedmont. Groundwater in the county is generally full of minerals and tends to be "hard" if not softened. Mineral-based water was the attraction at Mt. Vernon Springs during the latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century. A resort spa was established at the mineral springs. Visitors would drink the water in the hopes of curing ailments and diseases. The resort closed in the early 20th century and is now gone. The springs are still there and are maintained by a local church.
After the late 19th century lynchings in the county, and the state's disenfranchisement of blacks at the end of the century, many African Americans left in the Great Migration, as may be seen in population decreases at the beginning of the 20th century.
|U.S. Decennial Census
|Black or African American (non-Hispanic)||7,768||10.18%|
|Hispanic or Latino||10,372||13.6%|
As of the 2020 United States census, there were 76,285 people, 30,674 households, and 21,406 families residing in the county.
As of the census of 2010, there were 63,505 people and 24,877 households residing in the county. The population density was 93.1 people per square mile (36 per km2). There were 28,753 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile (18 per km2). The racial makeup of the county was 76.0% White, 13.2% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 7.1% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. 13.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
The median income for a household in the county was $56,038. The per capita income for the county was $29,991. About 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line.
In 2000, there were 19,741 households, out of which 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.80% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.91.
In 2000, the age distribution of the county was 22.50% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 24.60% from 45 to 64, and 15.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males.
A census tract within the county containing two affluent retirement communities had the highest average lifespan in the United States—97.5 years—according to data provided by the National Center for Health Statistics.
Chatham County has managed to retain its rural character in part because it is not served by an Interstate Highway. However, Chatham County plays an important role in regional transportation due to its close proximity to the geographic center of North Carolina and to major cities such as Raleigh, Durham and Greensboro. Though driving is the dominant mode due to the county's rural nature, residents enjoy a number of transportation options.
Chatham County is served by two public transit providers – Chatham Transit Network and Chapel Hill Transit. Chatham Transit Network (CTN) is the Community Transportation Program for Chatham County, providing fixed route and human service transportation. CTN's fixed route provides weekday service between Siler City, Pittsboro and Chapel Hill.
Chatham County provides many scenic bike routes along the county's rural highways. The American Tobacco Trail also traverses the northeast corner of the county.
Nearby Raleigh–Durham International Airport (RDU) serves Chatham County. Siler City Municipal Airport (5W8) is located 3 miles (4.8 km) southwest of downtown Siler City. This public access airport is home to several single and multiengine airplanes.
The county is served by both Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation. Norfolk Southern serves Siler City, Bonlee, Bear Creek, and Goldston as a part of a spur line that runs between Greensboro and Sanford. CSX serves the Moncure area on trackage that runs between Raleigh and Hamlet. Oddly enough, Pittsboro was once served by the Seaboard System Railroad (the predecessor to CSX), but the tracks were taken up in the 1970s and were never to return.
Parks and recreation
- County parks, trails, and recreation areas
- Northwest District Park
- Northeast District Park
- Southwest Community Park
- Earl Thompson Park, Bynum
- American Tobacco Trail
- Bynum Beach Haw River Paddle Access
- 15-501 Haw River Canoe Access
- US 64 Haw River Paddle Access
- Briar Chapel Sports Park
- Southeast District Park (land acquired 2012)
- State parks, trails, and recreation areas
- Jordan Lake State Recreation Area (including Crosswinds Campground, Ebenezer Church, Parker's Creek, Poplar Point, Seaforth area, Vista Point, Robeson Creek, New Hope Overlook, and White Oak Recreation Areas)
- Lower Haw River State Natural Area
- Jordan Lake Educational State Forest
- Deep River State Trail.
- Robeson Creek Paddle Access
- Robeson Creek Boat Access
- Other attractions
- White Pines Nature Preserve
- Carnivore Preservation Trust
- New Hope Valley Railway
- Shakori Hills Grassroots Festival and Community Arts Center
- Condoret Nature Preserve
- McIver Landing
- La Grange Riparian Reserve
- Wood's Mill Bend
- Deep River Park and the Deep River Camelback Truss Bridge
- Crosswinds Marina
- Irvin Nature Preserve
- Apex (mostly in Wake County)
- Cary (mostly in Wake County)
- Chapel Hill (mostly in Orange County)
- Siler City
- Bear Creek
- Cape Fear
- Haw River
- Hickory Mountain
- New Hope
Chatham County contributes funds to, but does not govern, K-12 public education and the community college system. The Chatham County School System is governed by its own elected board. There are three public high schools: Northwood in Pittsboro, Jordan-Matthews in Siler City, and Chatham Central in Bear Creek.
Chatham is home to three charter schools – Woods Charter School, Chatham Charter High School, and Willow Oak Montessori Charter School.
Woods Charter School is a grade K-12 public school. The school moved into a new fully equipped building on 160 Woodland Grove Lane outside Pittsboro in August 2008. Woods ranked "top ten" on SAT scores in North Carolina.
Chatham Charter High School is a grade K-12 public school. The school is located on 2200 Hamp Stone Road in Siler City, NC.
Willow Oak Montessori Charter School is a tuition-free public school located in Central Chatham County, that currently serves children in grades 1 through 8.
Central Carolina Community College, which has two campuses in the county, is governed by its own appointed Board of Trustees.
Generally, county resources provide only part of the total funding for K-12 and community colleges, but the county devotes a considerable amount of its resources to public education. In fiscal year 2007–08, more than 39% of the county's tax dollars went to education.
According to the N.C. Association of County Commissioners Annual Tax and Budget Survey for fiscal year 2006–07, the county ranked 11th in the state in total spending per student and fifth in the percent of the current expense/general funds spent on schools per student. The county also was 14th in overall education resources per capita during fiscal year 06–07.
Images for kids
The county line between Chatham and Orange Counties
Chatham County, North Carolina Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.