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Republic of Turkmenistan

Türkmenistan
Emblem of Turkmenistan
Emblem
Anthem: 
Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni
Independent Neutral Turkmenistan State Anthem

Location of Turkmenistan
Capital
and largest city
Ashgabat
Official languages Turkmen
Inter-ethnic
languages
Russian, Uzbek
Ethnic groups
(2003)
Demonym(s) Turkmen
Government Dominant-party presidential state
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
• Chariman of the Mejlis
Akja Nuberdiyeva
Legislature Mejlis
Independence from the Soviet Union
• Declared
27 October 1991
• Recognized
25 December 1991
Area
• Total
491,210 km2 (189,660 sq mi) (52nd)
• Water (%)
4.9
Population
• 2012 estimate
5,125,693 (112th)
• Density
10.5/km2 (27.2/sq mi) (208th)
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
• Total
$43.359 billion
• Per capita
$7,846
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
• Total
$25.742 billion
• Per capita
$4,658
HDI (2013) 0.698
medium · 102nd
Currency Turkmen new manat (TMT)
Time zone UTC+5 (TMT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+5 (not observed)
Driving side right
Calling code +993
ISO 3166 code TM
Internet TLD .tm

Turkmenistan officially the Republic of Turkmenistan is a country in South-Central Asia. It has borders with Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. It has no ocean but it is on the Caspian Sea to the west. The capital of Turkmenistan is Ashghabat. The majority of the country is Muslim at 93%.

Turkmenistan is a non-aligned and fully neutral country.

History

Turkmenistan was a part of the Soviet Union since its creation, in 1922. At first, Turkmenistan was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. In 1925 it was promoted to a Soviet republic. Turkmenistan is an independent country since 1991, after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Saparmurat Niyazov became Turkmenistan’s first president in 1991.

Provinces

Turkmenistan is divided into five provinces and one capital city district. The provinces are divided into districts which may be either counties or cities.

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital city Area Pop (2005) Key
Ashgabat City Ashgabat 470 km2 (180 sq mi) 871,500
Ahal Province TM-A Anau 97,160 km2 (37,510 sq mi) 939,700 1
Balkan Province TM-B Balkanabat  139,270 km2 (53,770 sq mi) 553,500 2
Daşoguz Province TM-D Daşoguz 73,430 km2 (28,350 sq mi) 1,370,400 3
Lebap Province TM-L Türkmenabat 93,730 km2 (36,190 sq mi) 1,334,500 4
Mary Province TM-M Mary 87,150 km2 (33,650 sq mi) 1,480,400 5

Climate

Turkmenistan is one of the driest desert areas in the world. Some places have an average annual precipitation of only 12 mm (0.47 in). The highest temperature recorded in Ashgabat is 48.0 °C (118.4 °F). Kerki, an extreme inland city located on the banks of the Amu Darya river, recorded 51.7 °C (125.1 °F) in July 1983, but this value is unofficial. 50.1C is the highest temperature recorded at Repetek Reserve, recognized as the highest temperature ever recorded in the whole former Soviet Union.

Geography

Turkmenistan is the world's 52nd-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Spain and somewhat larger than the US state of California. Over 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert.

The Turkmen shore along the Caspian Sea is 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) long. The Caspian Sea is entirely landlocked, with no access to the ocean.

The major cities include Aşgabat, Türkmenbaşy (formerly Krasnovodsk) and Daşoguz.

Turkmenistan has a humid climate. Annual rainfall is low, particularly in summer. Winters are dry and mild. The wettest region in Turkmenistan is Köýtendağ Range. Köýtendağ is situated in southeastern Turkmenistan on the borders with Uzbekistan.


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