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Republic of Kazakhstan

  • Қазақстан Республикасы  (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy
  • Республика Казахстан  (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Emblem of Kazakhstan
Anthem: Менің Қазақстаным
Meniń Qazaqstanym
"My Kazakhstan"
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
Location of  Kazakhstan  (green)
Capital Nur-Sultan
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Largest city Almaty
Official languages
Official scripts
  • Cyrillic
  • Latin
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s) Kazakhstani
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
• Chairman of the Security Council
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Askar Mamin
• Chairman of the Senate
Dariga Nazarbayeva
• Chairman of the Mazhilis
Nurlan Nigmatulin
Legislature Parliament
• Kazakh Khanate
• Alash Autonomy
13 December 1917
• Kirghiz ASSR
26 August 1920
• Kazakh ASSR
19 June 1925
• Kazakh SSR
5 December 1936
• Declared Sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Declared Independence from the USSR
16 December 1991
• CIS Accession
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
• Admitted to the United Nations
2 March 1992
• Current constitution
30 August 1995
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
Steady 18,448,600 (63rd)
• Density
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $569.813 billion (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $30,178 (53rd)
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $182.623 billion (55th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,672 (69th)
Gini (2017)  27.5
HDI (2018) Increase 0.817
very high · 50th
Currency Tenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zone UTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Driving side right
Calling code +7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 code KZ
Internet TLD

Kazakhstan is a country in the middle of Eurasia. Its official name is the Republic of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is the ninth biggest country in the world, and it is also the biggest landlocked country in the world. Before the end of the Soviet Union, it was called "Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic". The president of the country since 1991 is called Nursultan Nazarbayev. Astana is the capital city of Kazakhstan. Almaty was the capital until 1998, when it moved to Astana.

The Kazakh language is the native language, but Russian has equal official status for all administrative and institutional purposes. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practiced by 26%; Russia leases (rents) the land for the Baykonur Cosmodrome (site of Russian spacecraft launches) from Kazakhstan.


Kazakhstan political map 2000
Map of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has borders with the Russian Federation in the north and west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the southwest, and China in the far east. There is a point of contact with Mongolia in the far east and, for the most part, it has Siberia to the north (which, of course, is part of Russia). Russia therefore has the longest border with Kazakhstan. Basically, Kazakhstan runs from the Caspian Sea in the west to the mainly Muslim Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang.

Kazakhstan has no ocean shoreline, but borders the Caspian Sea, which boats use to get to neighboring countries. The Caspian Sea is an Endorheic basin without connections to any ocean.

Natural resources

Kazakhstan has plenty of petroleum, natural gas, and mining. It attracted over $40 billion in foreign investment since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output. According to some estimates, Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds. Kazakhstan has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas.


Kazakh Parliament Astana
Parliament of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces. The provinces are divided into districts.

Almaty and Astana cities have the status of State importance and are not in any province. Baikonur city has a special status because it is currently being leased to Russia with Baikonur cosmodrome until 2050.

Each province is headed by an Akim (provincial governor) appointed by the president. Municipal Akims are appointed by province Akims. The Government of Kazakhstan moved its capital from Almaty to Astana on December 10, 1997.

Red Carpet at AIAFF
International Astana Action Film Festival
Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
The Monument of Independence - Republic Square, Almaty
Province Status Full Kazakh name Full Russian name standard time Population
Akmola province Ақмола облысы Акмолинская область UTC+06 735 232
Aktobe province Ақтөбе облысы Актюбинская область UTC+05 805 117
Almaty city(1) Алматы қаласы город Алматы UTC+06 1 494 590
Almaty Province province Алматы облысы Алматинская область UTC+06 1 977 324
Astana city(1) Астана қаласы город Астана UTC+06 804 474
Atyrau province Атырау облысы Атырауская область UTC+05 564 936
Baikonur city(2) Байқоңыр қаласы город Байконур UTC+06 38 970
East Kazakhstan province Шығыс Қазақстан облысы Восточно-Казахстанская область UTC+06 1 394 382
Karagandy province Қарағанды облысы Карагандинская область UTC+06 1 367 512
Kostanay province Қостанай облысы Костанайская область UTC+06 880 775
Kyzylorda province Қызылорда облысы Кызылординская область UTC+06 737 122
Mangystau province Маңғыстау облысы Мангыстауская область UTC+05 582 361
North Kazakhstan province Солтүстік Қазақстан облысы Северо-Казахстанская область UTC+06 576 748
Pavlodar province Павлодар облысы Павлодарская область UTC+06 752 057
South Kazakhstan province Оңтүстік Қазақстан облысы Южно-Казахстанская область UTC+06 2 721 676
West Kazakhstan province Батыс Қазақстан облысы Западно-Казахстанская область UTC+05 622 333
Zhambyl province Жамбыл облысы Жамбылская область UTC+06 1 081 907
Zenkov cathedral
Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest religion in Kazakhstan


The population of Kazakhstan is 17,165,000. It takes the 62th place in the List of countries by population. Average density is almost 6 people/km2 ( List of countries by population density).

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