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Republic of Kazakhstan

  • Қазақстан Республикасы (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respublikasy
  • Республика Казахстан (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Emblem of Kazakhstan
Anthem: Менің Қазақстаным (Kazakh)
Menıñ Qazaqstanym
("My Kazakhstan")
Land controlled by the Republic of Kazakhstan shown in dark green.
Land controlled by the Republic of Kazakhstan shown in dark green.
Capital Nur-Sultan
51°10′N 71°26′E / 51.167°N 71.433°E / 51.167; 71.433
Largest city Almaty
43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E / 43.27750°N 76.89583°E / 43.27750; 76.89583
Official languages Kazakh
Spoken languages KazakhRussianUzbekUyghurTurkmenUkrainianAzerbaijaniTatar and Others
Ethnic groups
  • 68.5% Kazakh
  • 18.9% Russian
  • 3.3% Uzbek
  • 1.5% Uyghur
  • 1.4% Ukrainian
  • 1.1% Tatar
  • 1.0% German
  • 4.5% Others
  • 72.0% Islam
  • 23.1% Christianity
  • 4.0% No religion
  • 5.0% Others
Demonym(s) Kazakhstani
Government Unitary dominant-party presidential republic
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Alihan Smaiylov (acting)
Legislature Parliament
• Kazakh Khanate
• Alash Autonomy
13 December 1917
• Kirghiz ASSR
26 August 1920
• Kazakh ASSR
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declaration of Sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Independence from USSR
16 December 1991
• CIS Accession
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
• Admitted to the UN
2 March 1992
• Current constitution
30 August 1995
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 19,082,467 (64th)
• Density
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $569.813 billion (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $30,178 (53rd)
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $179.332 billion (55th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,686 (69th)
Gini (2017)  27.5
HDI (2019) Increase 0.825
very high · 51st
Currency Tenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zone UTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Date format
Driving side right
Calling code +7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 code KZ
Internet TLD

Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, or Kazakh: Qazaqstan; Russian: Казахстан), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Qazaqstan Respublikasy) is a country located mainly in Central Asia. It borders Russia in the north and west, China in the east, and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south. The capital is Nur-Sultan, formerly known as Astana. It was moved from Almaty, the country's largest city, in 1997. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country, the world's largest Muslim-majority country by land area (and the northernmost), and the ninth-largest country in the world. It has a population of 18.8 million, and one of the lowest population densities in the world, at fewer than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq mi).

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads, who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as the First and Second Turkic Khaganates, have inhabited the country starting from the 6th century. In the 13th century, the territory was subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. In the 15th century, Kazakh Khanate would conquer much lands that would later form territories of modern Kazakhstan. By the 16th century, the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz. The Kazakhs would raid territory of Russia throughout the 18th century, causing the Russians to advance into the Kazakh steppe, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Human rights organisations have described the Kazakh government as authoritarian, and regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor.

Kazakhstan is the most dominant nation of Central Asia economically and politically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources, and is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations (UN), WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, CCTS, and TURKSOY.


Kazakhstan political map 2000
Map of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has borders with the Russian Federation in the north and west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the southwest, and China in the far east. There is a point of contact with Mongolia in the far east and, for the most part, it has Siberia to the north (which, of course, is part of Russia). Russia therefore has the longest border with Kazakhstan. Basically, Kazakhstan runs from the Caspian Sea in the west to the mainly Muslim Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang.

Kazakhstan has no ocean shoreline, but borders the Caspian Sea, which boats use to get to neighboring countries. The Caspian Sea is an Endorheic basin without connections to any ocean.

Natural resources

Kazakhstan has plenty of petroleum, natural gas, and mining. It attracted over $40 billion in foreign investment since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output. According to some estimates, Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds. Kazakhstan has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas.


Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces. The provinces are divided into districts.

Almaty and Astana cities have the status of State importance and are not in any province. Baikonur city has a special status because it is currently being leased to Russia with Baikonur cosmodrome until 2050.

Each province is headed by an Akim (provincial governor) appointed by the president. Municipal Akims are appointed by province Akims. The Government of Kazakhstan moved its capital from Almaty to Astana on December 10, 1997.

Red Carpet at AIAFF
International Astana Action Film Festival
Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
The Monument of Independence - Republic Square, Almaty
Province Status Full Kazakh name Full Russian name standard time Population
Akmola province Ақмола облысы Акмолинская область UTC+06 735 232
Aktobe province Ақтөбе облысы Актюбинская область UTC+05 805 117
Almaty city(1) Алматы қаласы город Алматы UTC+06 1 494 590
Almaty Province province Алматы облысы Алматинская область UTC+06 1 977 324
Astana city(1) Астана қаласы город Астана UTC+06 804 474
Atyrau province Атырау облысы Атырауская область UTC+05 564 936
Baikonur city(2) Байқоңыр қаласы город Байконур UTC+06 38 970
East Kazakhstan province Шығыс Қазақстан облысы Восточно-Казахстанская область UTC+06 1 394 382
Karagandy province Қарағанды облысы Карагандинская область UTC+06 1 367 512
Kostanay province Қостанай облысы Костанайская область UTC+06 880 775
Kyzylorda province Қызылорда облысы Кызылординская область UTC+06 737 122
Mangystau province Маңғыстау облысы Мангыстауская область UTC+05 582 361
North Kazakhstan province Солтүстік Қазақстан облысы Северо-Казахстанская область UTC+06 576 748
Pavlodar province Павлодар облысы Павлодарская область UTC+06 752 057
South Kazakhstan province Оңтүстік Қазақстан облысы Южно-Казахстанская область UTC+06 2 721 676
West Kazakhstan province Батыс Қазақстан облысы Западно-Казахстанская область UTC+05 622 333
Zhambyl province Жамбыл облысы Жамбылская область UTC+06 1 081 907
Zenkov cathedral
Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest religion in Kazakhstan


The population of Kazakhstan is 17,165,000. It takes the 62th place in the List of countries by population. Average density is almost 6 people/km2 ( List of countries by population density).

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