Wheeling, West Virginia
Downtown Wheeling as viewed from above 22nd Street in 2012.
The Friendly City
|• Mayor||Glenn Elliott|
|• City Manager||Robert Herron|
|• Police Chief||Shawn Schwertfeger|
|• Fire Chief||Larry Helms|
|• City||16.01 sq mi (41.47 km2)|
|• Land||13.79 sq mi (35.72 km2)|
|• Water||2.22 sq mi (5.75 km2) 13.87%|
|Elevation||687-1,300 ft (209-396 m)|
| • Estimate
|• Density||2,065.7/sq mi (797.6/km2)|
|• Urban||81,249 (US: 353th)|
|• Metro||145,205 (US: 283th)|
|Time zone||UTC-4 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1548994|
Wheeling is a city in Ohio County in the U.S. state of West Virginia. Located almost entirely in Ohio County, of which it is the county seat, it lies along the Ohio River in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Wheeling was originally a settlement in the British colony of Virginia and later an important city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Wheeling was the first state capital of West Virginia. Due to its location along major transportation routes, including the Ohio River, National Road, and the B&O Railroad, Wheeling became a manufacturing center in the late nineteenth century. After experiencing the closing of factories and substantial population loss following World War II, Wheeling's major industries now include healthcare, education, law and legal services, entertainment and tourism, and energy.
Wheeling is the principal city of the Wheeling, WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 147,950, and the city itself had a population of 28,486.
- See also: Timeline of Wheeling, West Virginia
Arrival of early Europeans
The area had been inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years. In the 17th century, the Iroquois from present-day New York state conquered the upper Ohio Valley, pushing out other tribes and maintaining the area as their hunting ground.
Originally explored by the French, Wheeling still has a lead plate remnant buried by the explorer Céloron de Blainville in 1749 at the mouth of Wheeling Creek to mark their claim. Later, Christopher Gist and George Washington surveyed the land, in 1751 and 1770, respectively.
Establishment of European settlement
During the fall of 1769, Ebenezer Zane explored the Wheeling area and established claim to the land via "tomahawk rights." (This process meant to deaden a few trees near the head of a spring, and mark the bark with the initials of the name of the person who made the claim). He returned the following spring with his wife Elizabeth and his younger brothers, Jonathan and Silas; they established the first permanent European settlement in the Wheeling area, naming it Zanesburg. Other families joined the settlement, including the Shepherds (see Monument Place), the Wetzels, and the McCollochs (see McColloch's Leap).
In 1787, the United States gave Virginia this portion of lands west of the Appalachians, and some to Pennsylvania at its western edge, to settle their claims. By the Northwest Ordinance that year, it established the Northwest Territory to cover other lands north of the Ohio River and west to the Mississippi River. Settlers began to move into new areas along the Ohio.
In 1793, Ebenezer Zane divided the town into lots, and Wheeling was officially established as a town in 1795 by legislative enactment. The town was incorporated January 16, 1805. On March 11, 1836, the town of Wheeling was incorporated into the city of Wheeling.
By an act of the Virginia General Assembly on December 27, 1797, Wheeling was named the county seat of Ohio County.
Originally dubbed Fort Fincastle in 1774, the fort was later renamed Fort Henry in honor of Virginia's American governor, Patrick Henry. In 1777, Native Americans of the Shawnee, Wyandot and Mingo tribes joined to attack pioneer settlements along the upper Ohio River, which were illegal according to the Crown's Proclamation of 1763. They hoped an alliance with the British would drive the colonial settlers out of their territory.
Local men, later joined by recruits from Fort Shepherd (in Elm Grove) and Fort Holliday, defended the fort. The native force burned the surrounding cabins and destroyed livestock.
During the first attack of the year, Major Samuel McColloch led a small force of men from Fort Vanmetre along Short Creek to assist the besieged Fort Henry. Separated from his men, McColloch was chased by attacking Indians. Upon his horse, McColloch charged up Wheeling Hill and made what is known as McColloch's Leap 300 feet (91 m) down its eastern side.
In 1782, a native army along with British soldiers attempted to take Fort Henry. During this siege, Fort Henry's supply of ammunition was exhausted. The defenders decided to dispatch a man to secure more ammunition from the Zane homestead. Betty Zane volunteered for the dangerous task. During her departing run, she was heckled by both native and British soldiers. After reaching the Zane homestead, she gathered a tablecloth and filled it with gunpowder. During her return, she was fired upon but was uninjured. As a result of her heroism, Fort Henry remained in American control.
Role as transportation hub
The National Road arrived in Wheeling in 1818, linking the Ohio River to the Potomac River, and allowing goods from the Ohio Valley to flow through Wheeling and on to points east. As the endpoint of National Road, Wheeling became a gateway to early western expansion. In 1849 the Wheeling Suspension Bridge crossed the Ohio River and allowed the city to expand onto Wheeling Island. Lessons learned constructing the bridge were used in the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. Rail transportation reached Wheeling in 1853 when the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad connected Wheeling to Pennsylvania, Maryland and markets in the Northeast. A bridge over the river connected it to Bellaire, Ohio and western areas.
Much of this area had been settled by yeomen farmers, few of whom owned slaves. With the railroad, a larger industrial or mercantile middle-class developed that depended on free labor; it either felt disinterest or hostility to slavery. The Wheeling Intelligencer newspaper expressed the area's anti-secession sentiment as tensions rose over slavery and national issues. The city became part of the movement of western areas to secede from Virginia after the beginning of the Civil War. It was the location of the aforementioned Wheeling Convention. It served as the provisional capital of the Restored Government of Virginia from 1861 to 1863, and became the first capital of West Virginia after it seceded from Virginia and was admitted to the Union in its own right in 1863.
The growing German population, which included immigrants after the 1848 Revolutions, was firmly anti-slavery. The Germans of Wheeling organized the "First West Virginia Artillery" to oppose the Confederacy and played a role in the initial movement to separate from Virginia. The Germans' culture influenced the city, such as their "German Singing Societies," the first of which began in 1855.
Post-Civil War growth
Although Wheeling lost its position as capital in 1865, it continued to grow. In the late nineteenth century, it served as a prime industrial center for the state. Noted businesses of the era included the Bloch Brothers Tobacco Company and steel concerns. As it grew, prosperous residents built an area of fine housing around Wheeling Island, but slums also grew. As a result of the growth, an ordinance was passed regulating personal cesspools, including a ban on pipe communications with other homes and businesses unless offensive smells were properly trapped.
With industry, Wheeling reached its peak of population in 1930. The Great Depression, and later changes and restructuring in heavy industry following World War II, led to a loss of working-class jobs and population. Capitalizing on its rich architectural heritage, Wheeling has worked to revive its main street and heritage tourism activities near the Ohio River. In addition, West Virginia has constructed fiber optics networks for advanced communication. Wheeling is becoming a center in health services and education as well.
Wheeling is located at United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.01 square miles (41.47 km2), of which 13.79 square miles (35.72 km2) is land and 2.22 square miles (5.75 km2) is water.(40.070348, -80.698604). According to the
Wheeling is located in northern West Virginia, on what is known as the northern panhandle. The area lies within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau. The city is directly across the river from the state of Ohio and only 11 miles (18 km) west of Pennsylvania. It is a part of the Tri-State area of Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, which is commonly referred to as the Ohio River Valley Region or "The Ohio Valley".
Wheeling Creek flows through the city, and meets the Ohio River in downtown Wheeling.
The city is located both on the West Virginia side of the Ohio River, and on an island in the middle of the river called Wheeling Island.
Wheeling lies on the transitional climate zone between the humid subtropical climate and the humid continental climate (Köppen: Cfa/Dfa, respectively) with hot humid summers and cold winters. The annual precipitation is about 37 inches.
|Climate data for Wheeling, West Virginia|
|Average high °C (°F)||2.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-2.4
|Average low °C (°F)||-7.5
|Rainfall mm (inches)||63
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, there were 28,486 people, 12,816 households, and 6,949 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,065.7 inhabitants per square mile (797.6/km2). There were 14,661 housing units at an average density of 1,063.2 per square mile (410.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.2% White, 5.1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population.
There were 12,816 households of which 22.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 45.8% were non-families. 40.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.84.
The median age in the city was 45.2 years. 18.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 21.8% were from 25 to 44; 29.8% were from 45 to 64; and 20.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.9% male and 53.1% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 31,419 people, 13,719 households, and 7,806 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,258.4 people per square mile (872.1/km²). There were 15,706 housing units at an average density of 1,128.9 per square mile (436.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.72% White, 4.99% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.91% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, and 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.58% of the population.
There were 13,719 households out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.89.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, and 21.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 84.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,388, and the median income for a family was $38,708. Males had a median income of $30,750 versus $22,099 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,923. About 13.1% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.3% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over.
The city of Wheeling has a rich and varied history. West Virginia Independence Hall was the site of the Wheeling Convention, two meetings held in 1861 that ultimately reversed Virginia's Ordinance of Secession. Twenty-six counties in Virginia's north and west voted against secession from the Union and created the new state of West Virginia, which the United States quickly admitted. Later in 1861 and continuing to 1863, the building was the site of many heated debates during the First Constitutional Convention of West Virginia including the name of the new state. The oldest building in the area is Shepherd Hall (Monument Place), built in 1798.
Wheeling is home to Centre Market, formerly Wheeling's market house. Built in 1853, the market house and the surrounding area have been adapted for use as retail shops and restaurants.
The first official memorial monument in the state of West Virginia, dedicated specifically to men killed in the Vietnam War, was dedicated in Wheeling, with full military honors, in a Memorial Day 1986 ceremony. The monument was erected in front of the flagpole near the main shelter of Bethlehem Community Park in the village of Bethlehem, just southeast of Wheeling. The roughly 6 foot tall granite memorial consists of a large, bronze dedication plaque with the names of KIAs from the Wheeling/Ohio County region. Below the dedication plaque is a bronze map of South Vietnam, complete with names of 28 major cities.
Parks and recreation
Wheeling features several municipal parks including Oglebay Resort & Conference Center and Wheeling Park. Ohio County has six golf courses, including designs by renowned golfer Arnold Palmer and architect Robert Trent Jones. The Wheeling Suspension Bridge, which was once the longest suspension bridge in the world, connects downtown Wheeling to Wheeling Island.
In October 2007 the City of Wheeling opened the state's first concrete skateboard park. The 12,000-square-foot (1,100 m2) facility was designed and built by world-renowned skatepark builder, Grindline, of Seattle, Washington. The park consists of 60% bowls and 40% street elements; it is located within the Chambers Ballfield Complex in the Elm Grove section of the City. An addition to the street section of the park was completed by Grindline in November 2009. A covered shelter, restrooms, and webcam are scheduled to be installed in early 2010. The park is lighted and open 24/7.
Wheeling in fiction
- In the 1971 film "Fools' Parade" starring Jimmy Stewart and Kurt Russell, set in and around Marshall County, West Virginia during the Great Depression, the character Junior Kilfong, played by Morgan Paull mentions that he has to get to Wheeling by midnight to sing on the radio.
- In Season 2, Episode 11 of Family Ties, Alex and his friends go to Wheeling to celebrate his 18th birthday.
- In Season 1 of The White Shadow, the episode "Bonus Baby" has the Wheeling Wheelers as the semi-pro team that Warren Coolidge was being shopped to by unscrupulous agent, Walter Preston.
- Wheeling, under the name Raysburg, occurs again and again as the centre for action in several of Keith Maillard's novels, notably in Gloria and Clarinet Polka.
- In the 2005 film Walk the Line, Johnny Cash and June Carter performed at the Capital City Music Hall in downtown Wheeling while on tour.
- Wheeling is referred to in Bat Boy: The Musical as the nearest large town to Hope Falls, where the story takes place.
- Wheeling is referred to in the episode "Howard and Millie" of The Andy Griffith Show, where the couple, along with Andy and Helen, travel by train to Wheeling to get married. The wedding is then cancelled after arriving.
- Wheeling is referred to in an episode of The Waltons, called "The Deed", set in and around Schuyler, Virginia, when Richard Thomas' character "John Boy" travels 335 miles (539 km) to the 'Big City' of Wheeling in 1934.
- Wheeling is referred to in an episode of the sitcom Family Ties, set in Columbus, Ohio, when Michael J. Fox's character Alex P. Keaton says, "let's go down to Wheeling, West Virginia," to drink.
- Billy Joel's hit song "The Ballad of Billy the Kid" identifies the birthplace of the ballad's antagonist as Wheeling.
- In Season 2 of The West Wing, the episode "In This White House" names Wheeling as a location where two would-be assassins purchased firearms in their mission to kill the show's President, Josiah Bartlett.
- John Corbett's character, Chris Stevens (Chris in the Morning), in Northern Exposure is from Wheeling.
- "Life in the Iron Mills", a short story by Rebecca Harding Davis, was set in the factory world of nineteenth-century Wheeling. Her first published work, it appeared anonymously in April 1861 in the Atlantic Monthly; it caused a literary sensation and its powerful naturalism.
- Whatever is a 1998 independent film, shot mostly in Wheeling, about teenagers facing the difficulties of growing up in Northern New Jersey.
- A West Virginia–centric episode of Murder, She Wrote, "Coal Miner's Slaughter", has Megan Mullally's character passing the bar exam in Wheeling.
- "Wheeling, West Virginia" was a hit song for Neil Sedaka in 1970. The song tells of an actor from Wheeling who works at MGM.
- "Eliza and the House that Jack Built", a novel by Hungarian writer Albert Wass, takes place in the Wheeling area, around the end of the 19th century. The story is about the pioneers and immigrants who have settled there.
- Fort Wheeling, a comics series by the Italian comics author Hugo Pratt, deals with events taking place in the Wheeling area during the American Revolution.
- Wheeling is mentioned in the song "Bonita & Bill Butler" by Alison Krauss & Union Station
- Barney Stinson (Neil Patrick Harris) mentions Wheeling in "The Lighthouse" episode of How I Met Your Mother, aired November 4, 2013.
- In Criminal Minds Season 9 Episode 20, called "Blood Relations" (directed by Matthew Gray Gubler), Wheeling was the setting for the crimes involving feuding families, being investigated by the FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit.
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