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Windham County, Vermont facts for kids

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Windham County
Windham County courthouse in Newfane
Windham County courthouse in Newfane
Map of Vermont highlighting Windham County
Location within the U.S. state of Vermont
Map of the United States highlighting Vermont
Vermont's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Vermont
Founded 1781
Named for Windham, Vermont, which was named for Windham, Connecticut
Shire Town Newfane
Largest town Brattleboro
Area
 • Total 798 sq mi (2,070 km2)
 • Land 785 sq mi (2,030 km2)
 • Water 13 sq mi (30 km2)  1.6%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total 45,905
 • Density 57.53/sq mi (22.211/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district At-large

Windham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of the 2020 census, the population was 45,905. The shire town (county seat) is Newfane, and the largest municipality is the town of Brattleboro.

History

Fort Bridgman, Vernon, was burned in 1755, a casualty of the French and Indian War. The Court of Common Pleas (established 1768) of the County of Cumberland (established July 3, 1766) of the Province of New York was moved to the town of Westminster in 1772. On July 4, 1776 the Province of New York became an independent state.

On January 15, 1777 Vermont declared its independence from New York, and functioned as an independent republic until statehood in 1791. Cumberland County (N.Y.) and Gloucester County (N.Y.) were extinguished when Vermont declared its independence from New York; Albany County (N.Y.) and Charlotte County (now Washington County, N.Y.) were eliminated from Vermont.

Unity County was formed March 17, 1778, the eastern of the two original Vermont Republic counties. Unity County was renamed Cumberland County on March 21, 1778. Cumberland County and Bennington County (the eastern original county) exchanged land, adjusting their early border. On February 16, 1781 Rutland County was created from Bennington County, and Orange, Windham and Windsor Counties were created from Cumberland County. Some authors assume Cumberland County was renamed Windham County in 1781. Yet there are several original sources that indicate Cumberland County was dissolved rather than renamed. This was probably to make a clean legal break from any connection with Cumberland County, New York, as some authors indicate the Cumberland County, Vermont Republic, records remained in Windham County. Newfane became the Shire Town of Windham County before 1812.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 798 square miles (2,070 km2), of which 785 square miles (2,030 km2) is land and 13 square miles (34 km2) (1.6%) is water. It is the third-largest county in Vermont by land area.

Adjacent counties

Reservoirs

National protected areas

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 17,572
1800 23,581 34.2%
1810 26,760 13.5%
1820 28,457 6.3%
1830 28,748 1.0%
1840 27,442 −4.5%
1850 29,062 5.9%
1860 26,982 −7.2%
1870 26,036 −3.5%
1880 26,763 2.8%
1890 26,547 −0.8%
1900 26,660 0.4%
1910 26,932 1.0%
1920 26,373 −2.1%
1930 26,015 −1.4%
1940 27,850 7.1%
1950 28,749 3.2%
1960 29,776 3.6%
1970 33,074 11.1%
1980 36,933 11.7%
1990 41,588 12.6%
2000 44,216 6.3%
2010 44,513 0.7%
2020 45,905 3.1%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790–1960 1900–1990
1990–2000 2010–2018

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, 44,513 people, 19,290 households, and 11,453 families resided in the county. The population density was 56.7 inhabitants per square mile (21.9/km2). There were 29,735 housing units at an average density of 37.9 per square mile (14.6/km2). The county's racial makeup was 95.3% white, 1.0% Asian, 0.9% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were:

  • Republic of Ireland 21.8% Irish
  • England 21.7% English
  • France 12.3% French
  • Germany 11.7% German
  • Italy 8.6% Italian
  • United States 8.2% American
  • Poland 5.5% Polish
  • Canada 4.9% French Canadian
  • Scotland 4.5% Scottish
  • Northern Ireland 3.2% Scotch-Irish
  • Sweden 3.0% Swedish
  • Wales 1.2% Welsh

Of the 19,290 households, 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families, and 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age was 44.9 years.

The county's median household income was $46,714 and the median family income was $58,814. Males had a median income of $40,872 versus $33,278 for females. The county's per capita income was $27,247. About 6.3% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.3% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation

Roads and highways

Windham County is crossed by:

  • I-91.svg Interstate 91 (six interchanges within the county)
  • US 5.svg U.S. Route 5
  • Vermont 8A.svg Vermont Route 8A
  • Vermont 9.svg Vermont Route 9
  • Vermont 11.svg Vermont Route 11
  • Vermont 30.svg Vermont Route 30
  • Ellipse sign 35.svg Vermont Route 35
  • Vermont 100.svg Vermont Route 100
  • Vermont 103.svg Vermont Route 103
  • Vermont 112.svg Vermont Route 112
  • Vermont 119.svgVermont Route 119
  • Ellipse sign 121.svg Vermont Route 121
  • Vermont 123.svg Vermont Route 123
  • Vermont 142.svg Vermont Route 142

Bus

Local bus service, particularly in and around Brattleboro and Bellows Falls, is provided by Connecticut River Transit's "The Current". The Current includes the entire Brattleboro BeeLine bus system, composed of the Red, Blue and White Lines, which also go to West Brattleboro and Hinsdale, New Hampshire. The Deerfield Valley Transit Association's fare-free MOOver serves mostly the southwestern portion of the county, especially the town of Wilmington and nearby ski areas. The MOOver also has bus connections to Bennington (in a partnership with the Green Mountain Express) to the west and Brattleboro, connecting to other local and intercity buses in both towns.

The national intercity bus service Greyhound serves Windham County with stops in Brattleboro and Bellows Falls daily.

Rail

Amtrak, the national intercity rail network, operates its Vermonter, running daily from St. Albans, Vermont to Washington, DC through Bellows Falls and Brattleboro with one daily northbound and southbound stop.

Communities

Towns

In Vermont, towns are contiguous named places, subdivisions of counties, where there is permanent, year-round human population. They are usually formally incorporated, governing themselves in open town meetings (with very few exceptions), and their usual elected administrative body is called a selectboard. Though Brattleboro is by far the most populous town in the county, the historic "shire town" (county seat) is Newfane, and Windham County Superior Court is still located there, as are the offices of the County Sheriff and the County Clerk.

Villages

Villages are named places and sometimes formal census divisions, but may or may not be incorporated separately within a town's borders.

Census-designated places

Other villages

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