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List of National Historic Landmarks in Florida facts for kids

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The National Historic Landmarks in Florida are representations of a broad sweep of history from Pre-Columbian times, through the Second Seminole War and Civil War, and the Space Age. There are 46 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in Florida, which are located in twenty-two of the state's sixty-seven counties. Sixteen of the NHLs in the state are significant examples of a particular architectural style, eleven have military significance, ten are archaeological sites, three were the homes of well-known American authors, and one is associated with the development of the U.S. Space Program.

Five sites are in state parks and managed by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Also included is a site determined eligible for National Historic Landmark status, and a list of historical sites in Florida managed by the U.S. National Park Service which also have national significance.

The National Historic Landmark program is administered by the National Park Service, a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process. The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation. Both public and privately owned properties are designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties, via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means. Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.

NHLs are also included on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), which are historic properties that the National Park Service deems to be worthy of preservation. The primary difference between a NHL and a NRHP listing is that the NHLs are determined to have national significance, while other NRHP properties are deemed significant at the local or state level. The NHLs in Florida comprise 2.6% of the approximately 1,600 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Florida.

Current NHLs

Landmark name Image Date designated Location County Description
1 Mary McLeod Bethune Home
Mary McLeod Bethune Home
December 2, 1974
Daytona Beach
29°12′39″N 81°01′56″W / 29.210789°N 81.032098°W / 29.210789; -81.032098 (Mary McLeod Bethune Home)
Volusia Home of Mary McLeod Bethune, educator and civil rights leader
2 Bok Tower Gardens
Bok Tower Gardens
April 19, 1993
Lake Wales
27°56′06″N 81°34′37″W / 27.935°N 81.576944°W / 27.935; -81.576944 (Bok Tower Gardens)
Polk Constructed by Ladies Home Journal editor Edward W. Bok on the highest hill in the area to create "a spot of beauty second to none in the country"
3 British Fort
British Fort
May 15, 1975
29°56′23″N 85°00′45″W / 29.939767°N 85.012499°W / 29.939767; -85.012499 (British Fort)
Franklin Built during the War of 1812 and also known as Negro Fort, it was the location of a fortification occupied by runaway slaves, as well as Indians living in the area. Due to a massive explosion near the end of the war, nothing remains of the fort.
4 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
April 16, 1984
28°29′20″N 80°34′40″W / 28.488889°N 80.577778°W / 28.488889; -80.577778 (Cape Canaveral Air Force Station)
Brevard The East Coast space launch facility of the U.S. Department of Defense, and adjacent to the Kennedy Space Center
5 Cathedral Of St. Augustine
Cathedral Of St. Augustine
April 15, 1970
29°53′29″N 81°18′45″W / 29.891286°N 81.312368°W / 29.891286; -81.312368 (Cathedral Of St. Augustine)
St. Johns Completed in 1797, it was severely damaged by fire in 1887, but restored over the next two years. It is part of the St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District
6 Crystal River Site
Crystal River Site
June 21, 1990
Crystal River
28°55′01″N 82°36′33″W / 28.916944°N 82.609167°W / 28.916944; -82.609167 (Crystal River Site)
Citrus A ceremonial center and burial complex, occupied during the Deptford, Weeden Island, and Safety Harbor periods
7 Dade Battlefield
Dade Battlefield
November 7, 1973
28°39′08″N 82°07′36″W / 28.652222°N 82.126667°W / 28.652222; -82.126667 (Dade Battlefield)
Sumter Site of the Dade Massacre during the Second Seminole War, it is now a state park
8 Marjory Stoneman Douglas House
Marjory Stoneman Douglas House
February 27, 2015
27°57′37″N 82°26′32″W / 27.960253°N 82.442283°W / 27.960253; -82.442283 (Marjory Stoneman Douglas House)
Miami-Dade County Home of noted environmentalist and activist Marjory Stoneman Douglas.
9 El Centro Español de Tampa
El Centro Español de Tampa
June 3, 1988
27°57′37″N 82°26′32″W / 27.960253°N 82.442283°W / 27.960253; -82.442283 (El Centro Español de Tampa)
Hillsborough Home of the first mutual aid society in Florida, and part of the Ybor City Historic District
10 Ferdinand Magellan - U.S. Car No. 1
Ferdinand Magellan - U.S. Car No. 1
February 4, 1985
25°37′03″N 80°24′00″W / 25.6175°N 80.4°W / 25.6175; -80.4 (Ferdinand Magellan - U.S. Car No. 1)
Miami-Dade The first passenger railcar built for a President since the one made for Lincoln in 1865. It was used by FDR, Truman, Eisenhower, and briefly by Reagan.
11 Florida Southern College Historic District
Florida Southern College Historic District
March 2, 2012
28°01′52″N 81°56′48″W / 28.031111°N 81.946667°W / 28.031111; -81.946667 (Florida Southern College Historic District)
Polk Contains the largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture.
12 Fort King Site
Fort King Site
February 24, 2004
29°11′20″N 82°04′56″W / 29.188889°N 82.082222°W / 29.188889; -82.082222 (Fort King Site)
Marion Site of fort prominent before and during the Second Seminole War. It was located at a nexus of military roads reaching from Tampa to Jacksonville
13 Fort Mose Site
Fort Mose Site
October 12, 1994
29°55′40″N 81°19′31″W / 29.927689°N 81.325169°W / 29.927689; -81.325169 (Fort Mose Site)
St. Johns First free black settlement legally sanctioned in what would become the United States. Slaves from the British colonies of South Carolina and Georgia escaped here during the early to mid 18th century, making this a precursor to the Underground Railroad.
14 Fort San Carlos De Barrancas
Fort San Carlos De Barrancas
October 9, 1960
30°20′52″N 87°17′51″W / 30.347839°N 87.297561°W / 30.347839; -87.297561 (Fort San Carlos De Barrancas)
Escambia Site of a series of forts going back as far as 1698, now part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore.
15 Fort San Marcos De Apalache
Fort San Marcos De Apalache
November 13, 1966
St. Marks
30°09′18″N 84°12′40″W / 30.155°N 84.211111°W / 30.155; -84.211111 (Fort San Marcos De Apalache)
Wakulla Wooden or masonry forts were at this site during Spanish or British colonial periods, and the Second Seminole War. The Spanish fort's capture in 1818 by Jackson led the U.S. to acquire Florida in 1821.
16 Fort Walton Mound
Fort Walton Mound
July 19, 1964
Fort Walton Beach
30°24′13″N 86°36′27″W / 30.403611°N 86.6075°W / 30.403611; -86.6075 (Fort Walton Mound)
Okaloosa Type site of the Fort Walton Culture
17 Fort Zachary Taylor
Fort Zachary Taylor
May 31, 1973
Key West
24°32′46″N 81°48′37″W / 24.546094°N 81.810292°W / 24.546094; -81.810292 (Fort Zachary Taylor)
Monroe Controlled by the Union during the Civil War, later used heavily during the Spanish–American War, it is now a state park
18 Freedom Tower
Freedom Tower
October 6, 2008
25°46′48″N 80°11′23″W / 25.78°N 80.189722°W / 25.78; -80.189722 (Freedom Tower)
Miami-Dade The original headquarters and printing facility of the Miami News & Metropolis newspaper; later made a memorial to Cuban immigration to the U.S.
19 González-Alvarez House
González-Alvarez House
April 15, 1970
29°53′17″N 81°18′36″W / 29.888004°N 81.310038°W / 29.888004; -81.310038 (González-Alvarez House)
St. Johns The oldest house in St. Augustine, built in the early 18th century, and part of the St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District
20 Governor Stone (schooner)
Governor Stone (schooner)
December 4, 1992
Fort Walton Beach
30°10′03″N 85°42′09″W / 30.167521°N 85.702600°W / 30.167521; -85.702600 (Governor Stone (schooner))
Bay Built in 1877, it is the oldest surviving Gulf-built two-masted coasting schooner
21 Ernest Hemingway House
Ernest Hemingway House
November 24, 1968
Key West
24°33′04″N 81°48′03″W / 24.551179°N 81.800903°W / 24.551179; -81.800903 (Ernest Hemingway House)
Monroe A home of author Ernest Hemingway
22 Hotel Ponce de Leon
Hotel Ponce de Leon
February 17, 2006
29°53′32″N 81°18′51″W / 29.892129°N 81.314252°W / 29.892129; -81.314252 (Hotel Ponce de Leon)
St. Johns Built in 1887-88 by Carrère and Hastings for real estate and railroad tycoon Henry Flagler, it is the first large scale building constructed entirely of poured concrete. The only Flagler Hotel to survive the Great Depression, it later became part of Flagler College. Part of St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District
23 Zora Neale Hurston House
Zora Neale Hurston House
December 4, 1991
Fort Pierce
27°27′39″N 80°20′31″W / 27.460777°N 80.342009°W / 27.460777; -80.342009 (Zora Neale Hurston House)
St. Lucie A home of author Zora Neale Hurston
24 Ingham (USCGC)
Ingham (USCGC)
April 27, 1992
Key West
24°38′08″N 81°48′28″W / 24.635555555555555°N 81.807777777778°W / 24.635555555555555; -81.80777777777777 (Ingham (USCGC))
Monroe Built at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in 1935 and launched in 1936. Served on North Atlantic Convoys and credited with sinking u-boat 626. Served in Mediterranean and African Convoys and then landings in the Philippines. Served through Korea and received two Presidential Unit Citations for service in Viet-Nam. Served in Key West during the Mariel Boat lift in 1980 and retired in 1988 after 52 years of service. She remains the most decorated cutter in Coast Guard History.
25 Llambias House
Llambias House
April 15, 1970
29°53′16″N 81°18′39″W / 29.887907°N 81.310969°W / 29.887907; -81.310969 (Llambias House)
St. Johns Built in the late 18th century, and part of the St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District
26 Maitland Art Center
Maitland Art Center
August 25, 2014
28°37′32″N 81°22′03″W / 28.625556°N 81.3675°W / 28.625556; -81.3675 (Maitland Art Center)
Orange Artist J. Andre Smith founded the Center as an artist colony in 1937. With over 200 carvings and reliefs, it is an important example of Art Deco fantasy and Mayan Revival architecture in the United States.
27 Maple Leaf (shipwreck)
Maple Leaf (shipwreck)
October 12, 1994
30°09′30″N 81°41′12″W / 30.158333°N 81.686667°W / 30.158333; -81.686667 (Maple Leaf (shipwreck))
Duval Launched in 1851, it was sunk by the Confederates in 1864, and is one of the best preserved Civil War shipwrecks
28 Mar-a-Lago
December 23, 1980
Palm Beach
26°40′40″N 80°02′10″W / 26.677885°N 80.036057°W / 26.677885; -80.036057 (Mar-a-Lago)
Palm Beach The former estate of Marjorie Merriweather Post.
29 Miami Biltmore Hotel & Country Club
Miami Biltmore Hotel & Country Club
June 19, 1996
Coral Gables
25°44′28″N 80°16′45″W / 25.741111°N 80.279167°W / 25.741111; -80.279167 (Miami Biltmore Hotel & Country Club)
Miami-Dade A luxury Biltmore Hotel opened in 1926, it was the tallest building in Florida until 1928, and also served as a hospital during World War II.
30 The Miami Circle at Brickell Point Site
The Miami Circle at Brickell Point Site
January 16, 2009
25°46′10″N 80°11′24″W / 25.769381°N 80.189919°W / 25.769381; -80.189919 (The Miami Circle at Brickell Point Site)
Miami-Dade An important site related to the Tequesta
31 Mud Lake Canal
Mud Lake Canal
September 20, 2006
25°10′26″N 80°56′17″W / 25.174°N 80.938°W / 25.174; -80.938 (Mud Lake Canal)
Monroe Prehistoric long-distance canoe canal
32 Norman Film Manufacturing Company
Norman Film Manufacturing Company
October 31, 2016
30°20′02″N 81°35′37″W / 30.33379°N 81.59365°W / 30.33379; -81.59365 (Norman Film Manufacturing Company)
Duval A rare, extant silent film studio and the only surviving race film studio in America; it never transitioned to sound production.
33 Okeechobee Battlefield
Okeechobee Battlefield
July 4, 1961
27°12′04″N 80°46′09″W / 27.201111°N 80.769167°W / 27.201111; -80.769167 (Okeechobee Battlefield)
Okeechobee Site of the Battle of Lake Okeechobee, one of the major conflicts during the Second Seminole War
34 Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge
Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge
May 23, 1963
27°48′00″N 80°26′00″W / 27.8°N 80.4333°W / 27.8; -80.4333 (Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge)
Indian River Established by an executive order of President Theodore Roosevelt in 1903, this was the first national wildlife refuge in the United States.
35 Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District
Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District
December 8, 1976
30°20′52″N 87°17′50″W / 30.3478°N 87.2972°W / 30.3478; -87.2972 (Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District)
Escambia Opened in 1914, as the first U.S. permanent naval air station, first Navy pilot training center, and first U.S. naval installation to send pilots into combat.
36 Plaza Ferdinand VII
Plaza Ferdinand VII
October 9, 1960
30°24′27″N 87°12′50″W / 30.407406°N 87.213948°W / 30.407406; -87.213948 (Plaza Ferdinand VII)
Escambia Place where Florida was formally transferred from Spain to the U.S., in 1821
37 Ponce de Leon Inlet Light Station
Ponce de Leon Inlet Light Station
August 5, 1998
Ponce Inlet
29°04′44″N 80°55′42″W / 29.078961°N 80.928334°W / 29.078961; -80.928334 (Ponce de Leon Inlet Light Station)
Volusia Completed in 1887, it is the tallest lighthouse in Florida (at 175 feet (53 m) in height)
38 Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings House and Farm Yard
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings House and Farm Yard
September 20, 2006
Cross Creek
29°28′49″N 82°09′42″W / 29.4803°N 82.1617°W / 29.4803; -82.1617 (Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings House and Farm Yard)
Alachua A home of author Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
39 Safety Harbor Site
Safety Harbor Site
July 19, 1964
Safety Harbor
28°00′32″N 82°40′39″W / 28.008889°N 82.6775°W / 28.008889; -82.6775 (Safety Harbor Site)
Pinellas The largest remaining mound in the Tampa Bay area, and believed to have been the location of the "capital city" of the Tocobaga
40 San Luis De Talimali (formerly San Luis de Apalache)
San Luis De Talimali (formerly San Luis de Apalache)
October 15, 1966
30°26′57″N 84°19′12″W / 30.44909°N 84.319905°W / 30.44909; -84.319905 (San Luis De Talimali (formerly San Luis de Apalache))
Leon A Spanish Franciscan mission was built here in 1633 in the descendent settlement of Anhaica, capital of Apalachee Province. It was abandoned and destroyed in 1704 to prevent use by the British.
41 St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District
St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District
April 15, 1970
29°53′31″N 81°18′51″W / 29.89204°N 81.31428°W / 29.89204; -81.31428 (St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District)
St. Johns The district's boundaries are roughly those of the original town of St. Augustine, and covers the period of development from 1672 to 1935.
42 Tampa Bay Hotel
Tampa Bay Hotel
May 11, 1976
27°56′44″N 82°27′50″W / 27.945472°N 82.464013°W / 27.945472; -82.464013 (Tampa Bay Hotel)
Hillsborough Built by railroad magnate Henry B. Plant in a Moorish Revival style, and considered his premier hotel, it covers 6 acres (24,000 m2) and is .25 miles (0.40 km) long
43 Vizcaya
April 19, 1994
25°44′37″N 80°12′37″W / 25.743611°N 80.210278°W / 25.743611; -80.210278 (Vizcaya)
Miami-Dade Winter residence of industrialist James Deering
44 Whitehall (Henry M. Flagler House)
Whitehall (Henry M. Flagler House)
February 16, 2000
Palm Beach
26°42′52″N 80°02′30″W / 26.714307°N 80.041653°W / 26.714307; -80.041653 (Whitehall (Henry M. Flagler House))
Palm Beach A home of industrialist Henry Morrison Flagler
45 Windover Archeological Site
Windover Archeological Site
May 28, 1987
28°32′19″N 80°50′36″W / 28.538537°N 80.843239°W / 28.538537; -80.843239 (Windover Archeological Site)
Brevard A peat deposit preserving artifacts and human burials dating to the Early Archaic period. One of the largest collections of human skeletal material of its time, and of fiber arts from any New World archeological site.
46 Ybor City Historic District
Ybor City Historic District
December 14, 1990
27°57′54″N 82°26′06″W / 27.965°N 82.435°W / 27.965; -82.435 (Ybor City Historic District)
Hillsborough Has the largest collection of buildings related to the U.S. cigar industry; was a rare multi-ethnic & multi-racial industrial community of the Deep South in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Eligible National Historic Landmark

The following property was determined eligible for National Historic Landmark status, but did not become one. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Landmark name Image Date declared Location County Description
1 Hialeah Park Race Track Hialeah Park.jpg January 11, 1988 Hialeah
25°50′46″N 80°16′37″W / 25.846°N 80.277°W / 25.846; -80.277 (Hialeah Park Race Track)
Miami-Dade Built in 1921, the greyhound track is one of the oldest existing recreational facilities in southern Florida, and contributed to South Florida's popularity as a winter resort for the rich and famous. It became so well known for its flamingo flocks that it was officially designated a sanctuary for them by the Audubon Society.

Historic areas of the NPS in Florida

National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, some National Monuments, and certain other areas listed in the National Park system are historic landmarks of national importance that are highly protected already, often before the inauguration of the NHL program in 1960, and are then often not also named NHLs per se. There are six of these in Florida. The National Park Service lists these six together with the NHLs in the state.

Landmark name Image Date
Location County Description
1 Castillo de San Marcos National Monument Fort2.jpg October 15, 1924 St.Augustine St. Johns This fort was built in 1672-95 to protect early Spanish settlers.
2 De Soto National Memorial Bradenton FL DeSoto Natl Mem01.jpg March 11, 1948 west of Bradenton Manatee Commemorates the landing of Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto in 1539. De Soto’s expedition was the first extensive exploration by Europeans of what is now the southern United States.
3 Dry Tortugas National Park Fort-Jefferson Dry-Tortugas.jpg January 4, 1935 west of Key West in the Gulf of Mexico Monroe Protects several islands, associated coral reefs and marine life, and Fort Jefferson, a huge pre-Civil War masonry fort. The name “Tortugas” was given to these islands by Ponce de Leon in 1513, for the large numbers of sea turtles (“tortugas”) found in the area.
4 Fort Caroline National Memorial Fort-caroline-2.jpg January 16, 1953 Jacksonville Duval Commemorates the first French attempt to establish a settlement in the present United States. The fort model overlooks the original site of the French Juguenot colony of 1564-65. The French and Spanish began two centuries of colonial rivalry in North America here.
5 Fort Matanzas National Monument Fortwestern.jpg October 15, 1924 south of St.Augustine St. Johns Built to protect Spanish settlers. Two hundred and forty-five Frenchmen who challenged Spanish dominion were killed by Spaniards here in 1565. The name Matanzas means “slaughters.”
6 Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve Jacksonville FL Fort Caroline Natl Mem Ribault mnmt01.jpg February 16, 1988 Jacksonville Duval A partnership between the National Park Service and local government agencies to protect the wetlands, river systems, and historic sites within Duval County near Jacksonville, Florida. Kingsley Plantation, the oldest remaining plantation in Florida, is part of the preserve.
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