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Biloxi, Mississippi
The Biloxi Visitors Center and the Biloxi Lighthouse, the city's signature landmark, in November 2011
The Biloxi Visitors Center and the Biloxi Lighthouse, the city's signature landmark, in November 2011
"The Playground of the South"
"Buck City"
Location in Harrison County and the state of Mississippi
Location in Harrison County and the state of Mississippi
Biloxi, Mississippi is located in the United States
Biloxi, Mississippi
Biloxi, Mississippi
Location in the United States
Country United States
State Mississippi
County Harrison
Incorporated in 1838 as a township
 • City 67.83 sq mi (175.68 km2)
 • Land 42.99 sq mi (111.34 km2)
 • Water 24.84 sq mi (64.35 km2)
20 ft (6 m)
 • City 44,054
 • Estimate 
 • Density 1,075.02/sq mi (415.07/km2)
 • Metro
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
39530–39535, 39540
Area code(s) 228
FIPS code 28-06220
GNIS feature ID 0667173

Biloxi ( bih-LUK-see;) is a city in and one of two county seats of Harrison County, Mississippi, United States (the other seat being the adjoining city of Gulfport). The 2010 United States Census recorded the population as 44,054 and in 2019 the estimated population was 46,212. The area's first European settlers were French colonists.

The city is part of the Gulfport–Biloxi metropolitan area and the Gulfport–Biloxi–Pascagoula, MS Combined Statistical Area. Prior to Hurricane Katrina, Biloxi was the third-largest city in Mississippi, behind Jackson and Gulfport. Due to the widespread destruction and flooding, many refugees left the city. Post-Katrina, the population of Biloxi decreased, and it became the fifth-largest city in the state, being surpassed by Hattiesburg and Southaven.

The beachfront of Biloxi lies directly on the Mississippi Sound, with barrier islands scattered off the coast and into the Gulf of Mexico. Keesler Air Force Base lies within the city and is home to the 81st Training Wing and the 403d Wing of the U.S. Air Force Reserve.


Colonial era

Gallica Biloxy map zoom biloxy
Old Biloxi (site B) and New Biloxi (site A), French map, beginning of 18th century.

The first permanent settlement in French Louisiana was founded at Fort Maurepas, now in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, and referred to as Old Biloxi, in 1699 under the direction of Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, with Louisiana separated from Spanish Florida at the Perdido River near Pensacola (founded 1559 and again in 1698).

The name of Biloxi in French was "Bilocci" (with "fort Maurepas"),; on maps dated circa year 1710/1725 the name was sometimes translated into English as "Fort Bilocci".

In 1720, the administrative capital of French Louisiana was moved to Biloxi (or Bilocci) from Mobile (or Mobille). French Louisiana (part of New France) was known in French as La Louisiane in colonial times, but in modern times is called "La Louisiane française" to distinguish from the modern state of Louisiana (also "Louisiane" in French).

Due to fears of tides and hurricanes in the 18th century, the capital of French Louisiana was later moved by colonial governor Bienville, in 1723, from Biloxi to a new inland harbor town named La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans), built for the purpose in 1718–1720.

In 1763, following Great Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War, France had to cede French Louisiana east of the Mississippi River, except for New Orleans, to Great Britain, as part of the Treaty of Paris. At that same time, Louisiana west of the Mississippi, including New Orleans, was ceded to Spain as part of the Treaty of Fontainebleau.

Subsequent history

British rule persisted from 1763 to 1779, followed by Spanish rule from 1779 to 1810. Despite this, the character of Biloxi remained mostly French. In 1811, Biloxi came under United States of America control as part of the Mississippi Territory. Mississippi, and Biloxi with it, were then admitted to the union in 1817.

Biloxi began to grow. It became a summer resort, with the advantages of close proximity to New Orleans and ease of access via water. Summer homes were built by well-to-do farmers and commercial figures. Hotels and rental cottages came into existence to serve those who could not afford their own homes.

One of Biloxi's most known features has been the Biloxi Lighthouse, which was built in Baltimore and then shipped south and completed in May 1848. (It and another are the only surviving lighthouses of twelve that once dotted the Mississippi Gulf Coast.)

In the early stages of the Civil War, Ship Island was captured by Union forces, which led to the effective Union capture of Biloxi as well. No major battles were fought in the area, and Biloxi did not suffer direct damage from the war. Some local Union sentiment could be discerned following the war's conclusion.

In the postbellum period, Biloxi again emerged as a vacation spot. Its popularity as a destination increased with railroad access. In 1881, the first cannery was built in the town, leading to others soon joining the location. Biloxi grew again, and as different ethnic groups came to work in the seafood factories, Biloxi gained a more heterogeneous population.

Howard Street Biloxi Mississippi 1906
Looking West down Howard Avenue at Lameuse Street, 1906
8 year old Max, one of the shrimp pickers. Only a small force was working that day. Biloxi, Miss. - NARA - 523402
Child laborers picking shrimp in Biloxi, 1911. Photo by Lewis Hine.
FEMA - 37532 - Restored Jefferson Davis home ^quot,Beauvoir^quot, in Mississippi
Beauvoir, the post-war home of Confederate States President Jefferson Davis.

During World War II, the United States Army Air Forces built Keesler Field, now Keesler Air Force Base, which became a major basic training site and site for aircraft maintenance. The Biloxi economy boomed as a result, again bringing more diverse groups to the area. By 1958, the first Jewish synagogue had been built in the town.

Biloxi's casino history dates back to a period in the 1940s, when open, if technically illegal, gambling took place in a casino within the Broadwater Beach Resort. Open gambling ended during the 1950s. The Mississippi Gulf Coast became known as the "Poor Man's Riviera", and was frequented by Southern families interested in fishing expeditions during the summer. Commercially, Biloxi was dominated by shrimp boats and oyster luggers.

In 1959 Biloxi was the site of "Mississippi’s first public assault on racial barriers in its 15-year civil rights struggle" when Gilbert Mason, a physician in Biloxi, went swimming at a local beach with seven other black friends. They were ordered to leave by a city policeman, who told them that "Negroes don't come to the sand beach." This initiated a series of protests led by Mason, known as the Biloxi Wade-Ins. The protests were followed by the worst racial riot in Mississippi history and the death of ten people. Ultimately, the protests led to the desegregation of the beaches of Biloxi.

In the early 1960s, the Gulf Coast again emerged as a prime alternative to Florida as a southern vacation destination among Northerners, with Biloxi a center of the focus. Biloxi hotels upgraded their amenities and hired chefs from France and Switzerland in an effort to provide some of the best seafood cuisine in the country. Edgewater Mall was built in 1963.

With the introduction of legal gambling in Mississippi in the 1990s, Biloxi was again transformed. It became an important center for casinos, and the hotels and complexes brought millions of dollars in tourism revenue to the city. The more famous casino complexes were the Beau Rivage casino resort, the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino (Biloxi), Casino Magic, Grand Casino, Isle of Capri Casino Resort Biloxi, Boomtown Casino, President Casino Broadwater Resort, and Imperial Palace. Like Tunica County in the northern part of the state, Biloxi and the surrounding Gulf Coast region was considered a leading gambling center in the Southern United States.

To celebrate the area's Tricentennial in 1998/99, the city's tourism promotion agency invited the nationally syndicated Travel World Radio Show to broadcast live from Biloxi, with co-host Willem Bagchus in attendance.

By the early 21st century, Biloxi's economy rested on the three prongs of seafood, tourism and gaming.


Scores of hurricanes have hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast, but the most destructive, as measured by storm surge levels in the Biloxi Lighthouse, occurred in 1855, 1906, 1909, 1947, 1969 (Hurricane Camille), and 2005 (Hurricane Katrina)

Hurricane Katrina

On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast with high winds, heavy rains and a 30-foot (9.1 m) storm surge, causing massive damage to the area. Katrina came ashore during the high tide of 6:56AM, +2.3 feet more. Commenting on the power of the storm and the damage, Mayor A.J. Holloway said, "This is our tsunami." Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour was quoted as saying the destruction of the Mississippi coastline by Hurricane Katrina looked like an American Hiroshima.

On the morning of August 31, 2005, in an interview on MSNBC, Governor Barbour stated that 90% of the buildings along the coast in Biloxi and neighboring Gulfport had been destroyed by the hurricane. Several of the "floating" casinos were torn off their supports and thrown inland, contributing to the damage.

Many churches were destroyed or severely damaged, including St. Michael's Catholic Church (see photo at right), which was gutted by the storm surge, breaking the entry doors and stained-glass windows along the first floor; however, the interior was later removed, and the structure was still solid enough to allow repairing the church.

Hurricane Katrina damaged over 40 Mississippi libraries beyond repair, breaking windows and flooding several feet in the Biloxi Public Library, requiring a total rebuild.

Hurricane-force winds persisted for 17 hours and tore the branches off many coastal oak trees, but the tree trunks survived the 30-foot (9.1 m) flood and many have since regrown smaller branches. Some reconstructed homes still have the antebellum appearance, and miles inland, with less flooding, shopping centers have reopened.

Harrison County Coroner Gary T. Hargrove told the mayor and City Council that Hurricane Katrina had claimed 53 victims in Biloxi, as of January 30, 2006. Of the 53 confirmed fatalities in Biloxi, a figure that includes one unidentified male, Hargrove said the average age was 58, with the youngest being 22 and the oldest 90; 14 were female and 39 were male.

Biloxi is also the site of a well-known memorial to the Katrina victims, built by the crew and volunteers of Extreme Makeover: Home Edition.

Many casinos were damaged or destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. Of the casinos that were located in Biloxi, eight have reopened since Katrina. They are: the Grand Biloxi Casino Hotel Spa (formerly known as Grand Casino Biloxi), the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, the Isle of Capri Casino and Resort, the Palace Casino Resort, the IP Casino Resort Spa (formerly known as Imperial Palace), Treasure Bay Casino, Boomtown Casino, and the Beau Rivage, which reopened on the first anniversary of Hurricane Katrina.

Multiple plans have been laid out to rebuild the waterfront areas of Biloxi, and the federal government has recently announced that it is considering giving up to 17,000 Mississippi coast homeowners the option to sell their properties so that a vast hurricane-protection zone can be implemented. Meanwhile, the city of Biloxi is rapidly implementing plans to allow the redevelopment of commercial properties south of highway 90.

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 46.5 sq mi (120.5 km2), of which 38.0 sq mi (98.5 km2) is land and 8.5 sq mi (22 km2) (18.27%) is water.

Location of Biloxi, Mississippi, east of Gulfport (center), on Gulf of Mexico.

Biloxi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) that is heavily influenced by the Gulf of Mexico. Winter days are mild and wet. Snow is extremely rare in Biloxi. Summers are hot and humid, bearing the brunt of tropical storms during the late summer to fall. Biloxi’s record low of 10 °F (−12.2 °C) was recorded on January 24, 1963, and the record high of 104 °F (40 °C) was recorded on August 29, 2000.

Climate data for Biloxi, Mississippi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 82
Average high °F (°C) 60
Average low °F (°C) 43
Record low °F (°C) 10
Rainfall inches (mm) 5.07


Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 954
1880 1,540 61.4%
1890 3,234 110.0%
1900 5,457 68.7%
1910 8,049 47.5%
1920 10,937 35.9%
1930 14,850 35.8%
1940 17,475 17.7%
1950 37,425 114.2%
1960 44,035 17.7%
1970 48,486 10.1%
1980 49,311 1.7%
1990 46,319 −6.1%
2000 50,644 9.3%
2010 44,054 −13.0%
2019 (est.) 46,212 4.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
2018 Estimate

Biloxi is the smaller of two principal cities of the Gulfport-Biloxi, Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Gulport-Biloxi-Pascagoula Combined Statistical Area.

2020 census

Biloxi racial composition
Race Num. Perc.
White (non-Hispanic) 28,771 58.18%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 10,779 21.8%
Native American 148 0.3%
Asian 2,123 4.29%
Pacific Islander 67 0.14%
Other/Mixed 2,876 5.82%
Hispanic or Latino 4,685 9.47%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 49,449 people, 17,923 households, and 10,922 families residing in the city.

Arts and culture

  • 2010 saw the grand opening of the new Frank Gehry designed Ohr-O'Keefe Museum Of Art.
    OhrOkeefe 3
    Ohr-O'Keefe Museum Of Art campus in Biloxi
  • Biloxi is the setting of Neil Simon's play and film Biloxi Blues, which starred Mathew Broderick. Biloxi Blues is the story of army recruits during World War II training at Keesler Field, the present-day Keesler Air Force Base.
  • Biloxi is the setting of several John Grisham novels, including The Runaway Jury, The Summons, The Partner, and The Last Juror.
  • A substantial portion of Larry Brown's novel Fay is set in Biloxi.
  • American singer-songwriter Jesse Winchester once wrote and recorded a song called "Biloxi", for which he was inspired by a few images he saw of the city.
  • On his largest-selling regular album, Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes (1977), Jimmy Buffett included a cover of "Biloxi" (see above); also, a compilation album of his digitally remastered greatest hits was released in 1995 called Biloxi.
  • The song "Louisiana", by The Loved Ones, is about the rebuilding of the hurricane ravaged areas on the Gulf Coast. Louisiana, Biloxi, and Alabama are specifically used by name.
  • From 1990 to 1994, Biloxi served as home to the Miss Teen USA Pageant.



Biloxi is home to eight casino resort hotels, with 24-hour gambling, concert entertainment shows, and several restaurants. Some of the current casino resorts include (dates reflect business status after Hurricane Katrina):

Biloxi Casinos
Biloxi casinos
  • Beau Rivage Resort & Casino (Reopened August 29, 2006, on the first anniversary of Hurricane Katrina).
  • Golden Nugget Biloxi
  • Hard Rock Hotel & Casino (Opened June 2007)
  • Harrah's Gulf Coast
  • IP Casino Resort & Spa (Reopened December 22, 2005)
  • Palace Casino Resort
  • Boomtown Casino (Reopened 2006)
  • Treasure Bay Casino


Club League Sport Venue Founded Affiliate
Biloxi Shuckers SL Baseball MGM Park 2015 Milwaukee Brewers

In the center of what fisheries biologists term "The Fertile Fisheries Crescent", Biloxi offers some of the finest sportsfishing along the entire northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Spotted seatrout, red drum, Spanish and king mackerel, flounder, snapper, grouper, sharks, and more are all available to anglers during the fishing season. It is not known how Hurricane Katrina affected this ecosystem.

The Biloxi Shuckers, the Class AA Southern League affiliate of the Milwaukee Brewers play in MGM Park.

Biloxi was the host city of the 2009 Women's World Military Cup.

Biloxi City Futbol Club is set to join the Louisiana Premier League for the fall of 2016.


The city is served by the Biloxi Public School District and the Harrison County School District.

The Gulf Coast has a large Catholic school system, 15 of which are in Biloxi.



Biloxi is served by the Gulfport-Biloxi International Airport in Gulfport.

Biloxi's main highway is U.S. Highway 90 (Beach Boulevard), which runs along the beach and by the casinos. It connects the city to Gulfport and points westward and to Ocean Springs and Pascagoula to the east. The Biloxi Bay Bridge, connecting Biloxi and Ocean Springs, was rebuilt after Hurricane Katrina, and was fully reopened in April 2008.

Interstate 10 passes through the northern sections of the city, leading west 85 miles (137 km) to New Orleans and east 60 miles (97 km) to Mobile, Alabama. Interstate 110 splits off from I-10 at D'Iberville and heads south across the Back Bay of Biloxi to U.S. 90 near Beau Rivage, providing the city with an important hurricane evacuation route.

North–south highways serving the area include:

  • Mississippi Highway 15 (runs concurrent with I-110 for the first few miles)
  • Mississippi Highway 67

Notable people

  • Jessica Alba, model and actress, lived in Biloxi while her father was stationed at Keesler Air Force Base
  • Lionel Antoine, Chicago Bears third overall pick in 1972 NFL Draft
  • Laura Bailey, voice actress
  • Casey Eure, American politician, elected into the Mississippi House of Representatives
  • Matt Barlow, heavy metal singer
  • Alan Belcher, MMA fighter with UFC
  • Jimmy Bertrand, jazz drummer
  • Malcolm Brown, NFL running back for Miami Dolphins
  • Hector Camacho, world champion boxer
  • Isaiah Canaan, point guard, Philadelphia 76ers
  • Chris Carson, NFL running back for Seattle Seahawks
  • Gary Collins, actor and television personality
  • Jefferson Davis, U.S. Army general and West Point graduate; U.S. Secretary of War (Defense); only president of Confederate States of America
  • Gwen Dickey, singer best known as the front-woman of the R&B band Rose Royce
  • Ronald Dupree, professional basketball player
  • Leonard Fairley, football player
  • Damion Fletcher, University of Southern Mississippi running back
  • Jeff Gann, professional wrestler known as "The Gambler"
  • Fred Haise, Apollo 13 and Space Shuttle Enterprise astronaut
  • Ted Hawkins, singer-songwriter
  • Michael Janus, Mississippi state legislator
  • Chris LeDoux, country singer
  • Barry Lyons, catcher for New York Mets
  • James Millhollin, character actor, died in Biloxi in 1993
  • Mark Miloscia, former Washington State Senator
  • Mary Ann Mobley, actress and Miss America
  • Russell D. Moore, President of the Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission (ERLC)
  • Francis D. Moran, third director of NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps
  • Jack Nelson, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist who began career at Biloxi Daily Herald
  • George E. Ohr, groundbreaking potter and father of American Abstract-Expressionism movement
  • Chuck Pfarrer, former Navy SEAL, Hollywood screenwriter, New York Times best selling author, novelist
  • Eric Roberts, Oscar-nominated actor
  • Wes Shivers, NFL player for Tennessee Titans and mixed martial artist
  • Brenda Venus, model and actress

Images for kids

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Biloxi (Misisipi) para niños

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