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Pune
Poona
Metropolis
Top to bottom, left to right: Pune Skyline, Sam Manekshaw Statue in Pune Camp, Shaniwarwada, Fergusson College, and Baji Rao I Statue outside Shaniwarwada
Top to bottom, left to right: Pune Skyline, Sam Manekshaw Statue in Pune Camp, Shaniwarwada, Fergusson College, and Baji Rao I Statue outside Shaniwarwada
Nickname(s): Oxford of the East, Queen of Deccan
Country India
State Maharashtra
District Pune
Established 17th Century
Area
 • Pune City 331.26 km2 (127.90 sq mi)
 • Metro 7,256.46 km2 (2,801.73 sq mi)
Elevation 560 m (1,840 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Pune City 3,124,458
 • Rank 9th
 • Density 9,432.04/km2 (24,428.9/sq mi)
 • Metro 7,276,000
 • Metro Rank 7th
Demonym(s) Punekar, Poonaite
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN Code(s) 411001 – 411062
Area code(s) +91-20
Vehicle registration MH-12
Member of Parliament Girish Bapat (BJP)
Languages Marathi
Website pmc.gov.in/en

Pune; (also called Poona , the official name until 1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its extended city limits Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR). According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Pune Metropolitan Region along with Mumbai Metropolitan Region and Nashik Metropolitan Region is part of Mumbai Megalopolis also known as Mumbai Megaregion and Golden Triangle of Maharashtra has a population of over 50 millions making this region the most populated urban region in the world. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index.

The city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra. It is also known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education, management and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Now these days few International Baccalaureate institution is growing and establishing a milestone in the field of education .

Geography

Vetal tekdi
Vetal hill, a prominent hill in Pune. Elevation c. 800 m

Pune is situated at approximately 18° 32" north latitude and 73° 51" east longitude. The city's total area is 15.642 sq. km. By road Pune is 1,173 km (729 mi) south of Delhi, 734 km (456 mi) north of Bangalore, and 149 km (93 mi) south-east of Mumbai.

Pune lies on the western margin of the Deccan plateau, at an altitude of 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level. It is on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly city, with Vetal Hill rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. The Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 feet).

The old city of Pune is at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana, a tributary of Mula river and Indrayani river, a tributary of the Bhima river, traverse the northwest suburbs of Pune.

Cityscape

Lakshmi road5
A busy street in Pune, October 2012

The modern city of Pune has many distinct neighbourhoods. These include the numerous peths of the old city on the eastern bank of the Mutha river, the cantonment areas of Khadki and Pune Camp established by the British, and numerous suburbs. The industrial growth in the Pimpri, Chinchwad and nearby areas allowed these areas to incorporate as the separate city of Pimpri-Chinchwad.

The Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR), initially defined in 1967, has grown to 7,256 km2 made up of the ten talukas of the Pune district. The twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad along with the three cantonment areas of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road form the urban core of the PMR, which also includes seven municipal councils and 842 villages.

Rapid industrialisation since the 1960s has led to large influx of people to the city. Housing supply has not kept pace with demand, causing the number of slum dwellings to increase. Approximately 36% of the population lives in 486 slum areas. Of these, 45% slum households do not have in-house toilet facilities and 10% do not have electricity. One third of the slums are on mixed ownership land. The living conditions in slums varies considerably, depending on their status (formal/informal) and in how far non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community organizations (CBOs) and government agencies are involved and committed to improving local living conditions.

Baner from Baner Pashan Biodiversity Park
Baner, a recently developed suburb of Pune.

Since the 1990s a number of landmark integrated townships and gated communities have been developed in the city such as Magarpatta, Nanded, Amanora, Blue Ridge, Life Republic and Lavasa. They also offer business opportunities and access to infrastructure. According to the PMC, six townships with up to 15,000 housing units existed in Pune in 2012 and 25 more were in the planning process.

Pune Skyline 2018
Hadapsar, a recently developed suburb of Pune.

The Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings evaluated living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second highest in India after Hyderabad at 144. The same source highlights Pune as being among evolving business centres and as one of nine emerging cities around the world with the citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies". The 2017 Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) report, released by the Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, adjudged Pune as the best governed of 23 major cities.

Peths in Pune

Peth is a general term in the Marathi language for a locality in Pune. Seventeen peths are located in Pune, which today constitute the old city of Pune. Most were established during the Maratha empire era under the Maratha and Peshwa rule of the city in the 18th century, before the arrival of the British. Seven of them are named after the days of the week in Marathi, and the day of the week on which traders and craftsmen in these peths mainly conducted business corresponded to the day after which each is named. Other peths are named after their respective founders. Pune includes seventeen peths: Ghorpade Peth, Somwar Peth, Mangalwar Peth, Budhwar Peth, Guruwar Peth, Shukrawar Peth, Shaniwar Peth, Raviwar Peth, Kasba Peth, Bhawani Peth, Ganj Peth, Nana Peth, Ganesh Peth, Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth, Navi Peth.

Climate

Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (type BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (type Aw) with average temperatures ranging between 20 and 28 °C (68 and 82 °F). Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to mid-June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching 42 °C (108 °F). The warmest month in Pune is May. The city often has heavy dusty winds in May, with humidity remaining high. Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30Template:NbsApril 1897.

The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of.

For most of December and January the daytime temperature hovers around 26 °C (79 °F) while night temperatures are below 9 °C (48 °F), often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17Template:NbsJanuary 1935. Due to pollution the city's winter temperature has warmed up by 6 degrees.

Climate data for Pune
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.3
(95.5)
38.9
(102)
42.8
(109)
45.2
(113.4)
43.3
(109.9)
41.7
(107.1)
36.0
(96.8)
35.0
(95)
36.1
(97)
37.8
(100)
36.1
(97)
35.0
(95)
45.2
Average high °C (°F) 30.3
(86.5)
32.8
(91)
36.0
(96.8)
38.1
(100.6)
37.2
(99)
32.1
(89.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
29.3
(84.7)
31.8
(89.2)
30.5
(86.9)
29.6
(85.3)
32.0
(89.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.5
(68.9)
22.0
(71.6)
25.6
(78.1)
28.8
(83.8)
29.7
(85.5)
27.4
(81.3)
25.3
(77.5)
24.5
(76.1)
25.1
(77.2)
25.0
(77)
22.3
(72.1)
20.2
(68.4)
24.7
(76.46)
Average low °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.7
(54.9)
16.5
(61.7)
20.7
(69.3)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
22.0
(71.6)
21.4
(70.5)
20.7
(69.3)
18.8
(65.8)
14.7
(58.5)
12.0
(53.6)
18.0
(64.4)
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
3.9
(39)
7.2
(45)
10.6
(51.1)
13.8
(56.8)
17.0
(62.6)
18.9
(66)
17.2
(63)
13.2
(55.8)
9.4
(48.9)
4.6
(40.3)
3.3
(37.9)
-17.8
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0.5
(0.02)
5.3
(0.209)
16.6
(0.654)
40.6
(1.598)
116.1
(4.571)
187.2
(7.37)
122.3
(4.815)
120.1
(4.728)
77.9
(3.067)
30.2
(1.189)
4.8
(0.189)
721.7
(28.413)
Humidity 56 46 36 36 48 70 79 82 78 64 58 58 59.3
Avg. precipitation days 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.1 2.8 7.5 12.8 10.6 7.4 4.6 2.0 0.4 49.9
Sunshine hours 291.4 282.8 300.7 303.0 316.2 186.0 120.9 111.6 177.0 248.0 270.0 288.3 2,895.9
Source #1: Temperature and Precipitation: IMD (1951–1980)
Source #2: Sun hours and Humidity: NOAA (1971–1990)

Seismology

Pune is 100 km (62 mi) north of the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam. The India Meteorological Department has assessed this area as being in Zone 3, on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes. Pune has experienced some moderate – and many low – intensity earthquakes in its history.

Demographics

Template:IndiaCensusPop

Others include Sikhs and Parsis

Religion in Pune (2011)
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
79.43%
Islam
  
11.03%
Buddhism
  
3.94%
Jainism
  
2.45%
Christianity
  
2.17%
Others
  
0.63%
Not stated
  
0.35%

The city has a population of 3,124,458; while 5,057,709 people reside in the Pune Urban Agglomeration as of the 2011 census. The latter was c. 4,485,000 in 2005. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001.

Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India. The number of people migrating to Pune rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. The sharp increase in population during the decade 1991–2001 led to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. The top five source areas of migrants are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947. Initially they settled in the Pimpri area, which is still home to a large number of Sindhi people. However, they are also present in other parts of the city. As agriculture has dwindled in recent decades, immigration of the erstwhile rural peoples now accounts for 70 percent of the population growth.

Marathi is the official and most spoken language, while Hindi and Kannada are spoken by a considerable part of the population. The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15 % in 2011 compared to 80.45 % in 2001.

Religion

Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Other religions with a significant presence include Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.

Of the many Hindu temples in the city, the Parvati temple complex on Parvati Hill and at least 250 others date back to the 18th century. These temples were commissioned by the Peshwas, who ruled the city at the time, and are dedicated to various deities including Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh. The historic temples of Kasba Ganapati, the Tambadi (Red) Jogeshwari and the Dulya Maruti are considered the guardian deities of the city.Dagdusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple is the richest Ganesh temple in Pune. Pune has two of the most important pilgrimage centres of the Varkari sect of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra, namely Alandi where the samadhi of 13th century Saint Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where the 17th century Saint Tukaram lived. Every year in the Hindu month of Ashadh (June/July), the Paduka (symbolic sandals) of these saints are carried in a pilgrimage, the Pandharpur Vari, to meet Vithoba. The procession makes a stopover in the city on its way to Pandharpur attracting hundreds of thousands of Varkaris and devotees. Other important Hindu pilgrimage sites in PMR or the district include Jejuri, and five of Ashtavinayak Ganesh temples. The Shrutisagar Ashram houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy.

Prominent mosques include Chand Tara Masjid, Jama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five perfect masters, has a shrine (Dargah) erected in her honour under a neem tree in Pune Camp.

The city has several churches dedicated to different Christian denominations including St. Anthony's Shrine, Dapodi Church, etc. St. Patrick's Cathedral built in 1850 is the seat of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Poona. Pune has Jain temples dating back to the Peshwa era. At present, there are more than one hundred Jain temples in PMR with the one at Katraj being the largest. Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras, with Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar in Pune Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha in Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. The 19th-century Ohel David Synagogue, known locally as Lal Deval, is said to be one of the largest synagogues in Asia outside Israel. The Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Agiary is a prominent Zoroastrian temple.

Pune has been associated with several significant recent spiritual teachers. The controversial Guru Osho, formerly the self-styled Bhagwan Rajneesh, lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in Koregaon Park and attracts visitors from over a hundred countries. The meditation resort organizes music and meditation festival every year during monsoon, known as Osho Monsoon Festival. Number of well known artists around the world participates in the event.

Economy

Volkswagen India Private Limited Pune Office-plant 1338
Volkswagen India Plant and offices in Pune
Infosys pune phase II - panoramio
Infosys Pune

Pune has the eighth largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country. The key sectors of the local economy are education, manufacturing and information technology (IT).

Pune has historically been known as a center for higher education and has been referred to as the educational capital of India. In 2006, it was reported that nearly 200,000 students from across India study in Pune at nine universities and more than a hundred educational institutes.

The Kirloskar Group came to Pune in 1945 by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines, India's largest diesel engine company, at Khadki. The group has several subsidiaries in Pune including Kirloskar Pneumatics and Kirloskar Brothers Limited, one of India's largest manufacturers and exporters of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia. Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors, Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to describe Pune as India's "Motor City". According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses in Pune. Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume, has a manufacturing plant located in Pune. In 2014-15, the manufacturing sector provided employment to over 500,000 people.

The Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjawadi is a ₹600-billion (US$ 8.9 billion) project by the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). The IT Park encompasses an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km2) and is home to over 800 IT companies of all sizes. Besides Hinjawadi, IT companies are also located at Magarpatta, Kharadi and several other parts of the city. As of 2017, the IT sector employs more than 300,000 people.

Pune has also emerged as a new hub for tech startups in India. NASSCOM, in association with MIDC, has started a co-working space for city based startups under its 10,000 startups initiative at Kharadi MIDC. Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of Small Industries Development Bank of India, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.

The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to be boosted since the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) opened in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC boasts a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of 13,000 m2 (139,931 sq ft). It has seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project was developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.

Companies headquartered in Pune

The following is a list of some companies that have their global or national headquarters in Pune or the surrounding area.

Culture

Architecture

Shinde Chhatri, Wanowrie, Pune, Jan 2013
Shinde Chhatri in Wanowrie, Pune.

Historical attractions include the rock-cut Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, Lal Mahal and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the great Maratha sardar, Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia). The city is also known for its British Raj bungalow architecture and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment from the early 20th century. Landmark architectural works by Christopher Charles Benninger surround the city, including the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.

Museums, parks and zoos

LandscapePuLaUdyan2
Pu. La. Deshpande Garden

Museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Industrial Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum which is the biggest cricket museum in the world. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum; this includes a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train.The Aga Khan Palace, where Mahatma Gandhi was interned during the Quit India movement, has a memorial dedicated to his wife, Kasturba Gandhi who died here during the internment. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History,a private museum built by Frenchman Francois Gautier opened its first phase in 2012.

Apsara Theater
Apsara Theater

Parks and green spaces in the city include the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Gardens, and Bund Garden . The Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan. The Hanuman hill, Vetal hill, and Taljai Hills are protected nature reserves on hills within the city limits.

The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located in Katraj. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.

Performing arts

Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city.

Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest indoor theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of approximately 45,000. The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Sawai Gandharva. The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ (lit. Diwali dawn) originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.

Sport

Sahara Stadium Pune Outside view
Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium

As a matter of historic interest, early on, the game of badminton was also known as Poona or Poonah after the then British garrison town of Poona where it was particularly popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. (Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. "Battledore" was an older term for "racquet".)

Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing, and chess. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium in Balewadi is the venue for wrestling and other traditional sports. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. Pune has basketball courts at the Deccan Gymkhana and at Fergusson College. Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in Sahakarnagar, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground. Other prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, the Poona Golf Club and the Poona Cricket Club.

The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The National Games of 1994 and the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in the city at the Balewadi Stadium. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The 37,000 seating capacity Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium has hosted international cricket – T20s, One Day Internationals, and a test match. The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is a two- or three-day event with activities including cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting. Pune Race Course was built in 1830 on 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land and is managed by the Royal Western India Turf Club. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. The racing season is from July to October every year and includes major racing events the Pune Derby, the RWITC Invitational, the Independence Cup and the Southern Command Cup. The city has also hosted the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.

Teams

The Maharashtra cricket team, one of the three teams of the Maharashtra Cricket Association that compete in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy, is based in the city. Pune Warriors India (2011-2014) and Rising Pune Supergiant (2016-2017) were the two teams based in Pune to play in the Indian Premier League. Poona District Football Association (PDFA) was established in 1972 and currently has more than 100 registered teams. FC Pune City is an Indian Super League football club in Pune. Established in 2014, FC Pune City became the only professional football club in India to have teams which participated at all levels of professional football; Senior Team (ISL), U-18 Team (I-League U-18), U- 16 Team, U-14 Team and the Women's Team. The city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up in the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season. Pune also has an American football franchise, called the Pune Marathas, which began playing in the inaugural season of the Elite Football League of India in 2011 and which plays at the Balewadi Stadium.

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