Mendocino County, California facts for kids(Redirected from History of Mendocino County, California)
|Mendocino County, California|
|County of Mendocino|
Images, from top down, left to right: The community of Mendocino, the historic Grace Hudson Sun House, Point Arena Lighthouse, the Chandelier Tree, the "Skunk Train", A beach in MacKerricher State Park
Location in the state of California
California's location in the United States
|Region||California North Coast|
|Incorporated||February 18, 1850|
|• Total||3,878 sq mi (10,040 km2)|
|• Land||3,506 sq mi (9,080 km2)|
|• Water||372 sq mi (960 km2)|
|Highest elevation||6,958 ft (2,121 m)|
|Population (April 1, 2010)|
|• Estimate (2015)||87,649|
|• Density||22.6511/sq mi (8.7456/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific Time Zone (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Pacific Daylight Time (UTC-7)|
Mendocino County comprises the Ukiah, CA Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is located north of the San Francisco Bay Area and west of the Central Valley.
The county is noted for its distinctive Pacific Ocean coastline, Redwood forests, wine production, microbrews, and liberal views about the use of cannabis and support for its legalization. It is estimated that roughly one-third of the economy is based on the cultivation of marijuana.
- In popular culture
Mendocino County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Due to an initially minor white American population, it did not have a separate government until 1859 and was under the administration of Sonoma County prior to that. Some of the county's land was given to Sonoma County between 1850 and 1860.
The county derives its name from Cape Mendocino (most of which is actually located in adjacent Humboldt County), which was probably named in honor of either Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain, 1535–1542 (who sent the Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Expedition to this coast in 1542), or Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, Viceroy from 1580 to 1583. Mendocino is the adjectival form of the family name of Mendoza.
Neither Spanish nor Mexican influence extended into Mendocino County beyond establishing two Mexican land grants in southern Mendocino County: Rancho Sanel in Hopland, in 1844 and Rancho Yokaya that forms the majority of the Ukiah Valley, in 1845.
In the 19th century, despite the establishment of the Mendocino Indian Reservation and Nome Cult Farm in 1856, the county witnessed many of the most serious atrocities in the extermination of the Californian Native American tribes who originally lived in the area, like the Yuki, the Pomo, the Cahto, and the Wintun. The systematic occupation of their lands, the reduction of many of their members into slavery and the raids against their settlements led to the Mendocino War in 1859, where hundreds of Indians were killed. Establishment of the Round Valley Indian Reservation in March 30, 1870, did not prevent the segregation that continued well into the 20th century. Other tribes from the Sierra Nevada mountains were also located to the Round Valley Indian Reservation during the "California Trail Of Tears", where the Natives were forced to march in bad conditions to their new home in Round Valley. Many of these tribes thrown together were not friends with the other tribes they were forced to live with on the reservation, resulting in tensions still evident today.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,878 square miles (10,040 km2), of which 3,506 square miles (9,080 km2) is land and 372 square miles (960 km2) (9.6%) is water.
- Russian River (inland)
- Gualala River
- Garcia River
- Elk Creek
- Navarro River
- Albion River
- Little River
- Big River
- Noyo River
- Pudding Creek
- Virgin Creek
- Ten Mile River
- Usal Creek
- Eel River (inland)
- Big River Beach
- Caspar Headlands State Beach
- Van Damme Beach
- Greenwood State Beach
- Seaside Beach
- Westport-Union Landing State Beach
- Manchester State Beach
- Navarro Beach
- Portuguese Beach
- Schooner Gulch State Beach
- Long Valley Creek
- 10 Mile Creek
- Glass Beach
National and state protected areas
- Admiral William Standley State Recreation Area
- Caspar Headlands State Recreation Area
- Hendy Woods State Park
- Jug Handle State Reserve
- MacKerricher State Park
- Mailliard Redwoods State Reserve
- Manchester State Park
- Mendocino Coast Botanical Gardens
- Mendocino Headlands State Park
- Mendocino National Forest
- Mendocino Woodlands State Park
- Montgomery Woods State Reserve
- Navarro River Redwoods State Park
- Point Arena State Marine Reserve & Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area
- Point Cabrillo Light Station
- Reynolds Wayside Campground
- Round Valley Indian Reservation
- Russian Gulch State Park
- Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area
- Sea Lion Cove State Marine Conservation Area
- Sinkyone Wilderness State Park
- Smythe Redwoods State Reserve
- Standish-Hickey State Recreation Area
- Van Damme State Park
|Population, race, and income|
|Black or African American||949||1.1%|
|American Indian or Alaska Native||4,273||4.9%|
|Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander||202||0.2%|
|Some other race||5,127||5.9%|
|Two or more races||2,824||3.2%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||18,964||21.7%|
|Per capita income||$23,585|
|Median household income||$44,527|
|Median family income||$54,083|
Places by population, race, and income
|Places by population and race|
||Asian||Black or African
||Hispanic or Latino
(of any race)
|Places by population and income|
|Place||Type||Population||Per capita income||Median household income||Median family income|
|U.S. Decennial Census
The 2010 United States Census reported that Mendocino County had a population of 87,841. The racial makeup of Mendocino County was 67,218 (76.5%) White, 622 (0.7%) African American, 4,277 (4.9%) Native American, 1,450 (1.7%) Asian, 119 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 10,185 (11.6%) from other races, and 3,970 (4.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19,505 persons (22.2%).
|Population reported at 2010 United States Census|
(of any race)
(of any race)
(of any race)
(of any race)
|All others not CDPs (combined)||48,881||38,588||301||2,492||541||57||4,851||2,051||9,605|
As of the census of 2000, there were 86,265 people, 33,266 households, and 21,855 families residing in the county. The population density was 25 people per square mile (9/km²). There were 36,937 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile (4/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 80.8% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 4.8% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 8.6% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. 16.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.2% were of German, 10.8% English, 8.6% Irish, 6.1% Italian and 5.6% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.4% spoke English and 13.2% Spanish as their first language.
There were 33,266 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.3% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $35,996, and the median income for a family was $42,168. Males had a median income of $33,128 versus $23,774 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,443. About 10.9% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over.
The Mendocino Transit Authority provides local and intercity bus service within Mendocino County. Limited service also connects with transit in Sonoma County. Greyhound Bus Lines currently serves Ukiah.
Amtrak's operates connecting bus service to Ukiah, Willits and Laytonville.
- Ukiah Municipal Airport is a general aviation airport owned by the City of Ukiah. It is located south of downtown Ukiah.
- Little River Airport is a general aviation airport serving the Mendocino coast.
- Willits Municipal Airport is a general aviation airport serving the Willits / Little Lake Valley area. Located in the Brooktrails subdivision area west of Willits.
- Round Valley Airport is a general aviation airport serving the Covelo / Round Valley area.
For commercial service, passengers in Mendocino County need to go to Eureka, one county to the north in Humboldt County, or to Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, one county to the south. More comprehensive service is available from Sacramento to the east or San Francisco, well to the south.
Emergency services for the largely unincorporated county are coordinated through Howard Forest Station, a local Cal Fire station just south of Willits.
Mendocino County has nine Indian reservations lying within its borders, the fourth most of any county in the United States (after San Diego County, California; Sandoval County, New Mexico; and Riverside County, California).
The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Mendocino County.
† county seat
|Rank||City/Town/etc.||Municipal type||Population (2010 Census)|
|17||Round Valley Reservation (partially in Trinity County)||AIAN||401|
|20||Redwood Valley Rancheria||AIAN||238|
|t-21||Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria||AIAN||212|
|t-23||Sherwood Valley Rancheria||AIAN||168|
|25||Coyote Valley Reservation||AIAN||144|
|30||Hopland Rancheria (Pomo Indians)||AIAN||38|
In popular culture
Kate McGarrigle's song "(Talk to Me of) Mendocino," is one of the songs on the McGarrigles' 1975 debut album; it has been covered by Linda Ronstadt on her 1982 album Get Closer, and by the English singer-songwriter John Howard on his 2007 E.P., and also by Bette Midler on her 2014 album It's The Girls.
A song written by Matt Serletic and Bernie Taupin, Mendocino County Line released in 2002, is about a love that could not last and cites the 'Mendocino County Line' in the chorus.
The last racing scene of the movie Need for Speed(2014) was shot on the highways in the region.
Mendocino County, California Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.