Toledo, Ohio facts for kids
|City of Toledo|
Images, from top left to right: Downtown Toledo, University Hall, Toledo Museum of Art, Lucas County Courthouse, Tony Packo's Cafe, Anthony Wayne Bridge, Fifth Third Field
|Nickname(s): The Glass City; T-Town; Frogtown|
|Motto: "Laborare est Orare"|
Location of Toledo within Lucas County, Ohio
|• City||84.12 sq mi (217.87 km2)|
|• Land||80.69 sq mi (208.99 km2)|
|• Water||3.43 sq mi (8.88 km2)|
|Elevation||614 ft (187 m)|
|• Estimate (2015)||279,789|
|• Rank||US: 71st|
|• Density||3,559/sq mi (1,374.3/km2)|
|• Urban||507,643 (US: 80th)|
|• Metro||608,145 (US: 89th)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|Area code(s)||419, 567|
|GNIS feature ID||1067015|
Toledo (//) is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan. The city was founded by United States citizens in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, and originally incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded in 1837, after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio.
After construction of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; it also benefited from its position on the railway line between New York City and Chicago. It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education, healthcare, and local sports teams. The city's glass industry has earned it the nickname, "The Glass City".
The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census[update] was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States. It is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio after Columbus, Cleveland, and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, and was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, Dayton, and Akron.
- See also: Timeline of Toledo, Ohio
Varying cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years. When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks, presumably for stockades." One was at the intersection of Clayton and Oliver streets on the south bank of Swan Creek; the other was at the intersection of Fassett and Fort streets on the right bank of the Maumee River. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples.
This region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires (Ojibwe, Potawatomie and Odawa). The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615. The French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit, about 60 miles to the north. They settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth. They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the west and north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, and the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas.
United States period
The area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and after. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy, fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River. They were finally defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loose affiliation of tribes included the Wyandot and Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement.
According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of the Maumee about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there.
The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit (1807), the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River (where Toledo later developed). Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time. The Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan on November 17, 1807, with William Hull, governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U.S.
More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of 1812, when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around 1818 after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre (3.9 km2) tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, developing it as the modern downtown area of Toledo. Immediately to the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end. These two towns physically bordered each other with Cherry Street dividing them. This is why present-day streets on the northeast side of Cherry Street run at a slightly different angle from those to the southwest of it.
In 1824 the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and later its Wabash and Erie Canal extension in 1833. The canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie for water transportation to eastern markets, including to New York City via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. At that time no highways had been built in the state, and it was very difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River heavily competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status. The towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the upriver towns of Waterville, Maumee, and Manhattan.
The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo,
"but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends. One recounts that Washington Irving, who was traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident; this explanation ignores the fact that Irving returned to the United States in 1832. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major who quaintly numbered his sons and named his daughters after States. The most popular version attributes the naming to Willard J. Daniels, a merchant, who reportedly suggested Toledo because it 'is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent.'"
Despite Toledo's efforts, the canal built the final terminus in Manhattan, one-half mile (800 m) to the north of Toledo, because it was closer to Lake Erie. As a compromise, the state placed two sidecuts before the terminus, one in Toledo at Swan Creek and another in Maumee, about 10 miles to the southwest.
Among the numerous treaties made between the Ottawa and the United States were two signed in this area: at Miami (Maumee) Bay in 1831 and Maumee, Ohio, upriver of Toledo, in 1833. These actions were among US purchases or exchanges of land in order to accomplish Indian Removal of the Ottawa from areas wanted for European-American settlement. The last of the Odawa did not leave this area until 1839, when Ottokee, grandson of Pontiac, led his band from their village at the mouth of the Maumee River to Indian Territory in Kansas.
An almost bloodless conflict between Ohio and the Michigan Territory, called the Toledo War (1835–1836), was "fought" over a narrow strip of land from the Indiana border to Lake Erie, now containing the city and the suburbs of Sylvania and Oregon, Ohio. The strip—which varied between five and eight miles (13 km) in width—was claimed by both the state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory due to conflicting legislation concerning the location of the Ohio-Michigan state line. Militias from both states were sent to the border but never engaged. The only casualty of the conflict was a Michigan deputy sheriff—stabbed in the leg with a pen knife by Two Stickney during the arrest of his elder brother, One Stickney—and the loss of two horses, two pigs and a few chickens stolen from an Ohio farm by lost members of the Michigan militia. Major Benjamin Franklin Stickney, father of One and Two Stickney, had been instrumental in pushing Congress to rule in favor of Ohio gaining Toledo. In the end, the state of Ohio was awarded the land after the state of Michigan was given a larger portion of the Upper Peninsula in exchange. Stickney Avenue in Toledo is named for Major Stickney.
Toledo was very slow to expand during its first two decades of settlement. The first lot was sold in the Port Lawrence section of the city in 1833. It held 1,205 persons in 1835, and five years later it had gained just seven more persons. Settlers came and went quickly through Toledo and between 1833 and 1836, ownership of land had changed so many times that none of the original parties remained in the town. The canal and its Toledo sidecut entrance were completed in 1843. Soon after the canal was functional, the new canal boats had become too large to use the shallow waters at the terminus in Manhattan. More boats began using the Swan Creek sidecut than its official terminus, quickly putting the Manhattan warehouses out of business and triggering a rush to move business to Toledo. Most of Manhattan's residents moved out by 1844.
The 1850 census recorded Toledo as having 3,829 residents and Manhattan 541. The 1860 census shows Toledo with a population of 13,768 and Manhattan with 788. While the towns were only a mile apart, Toledo grew by 359% in ten years. Manhattan's growth was on a small base and never competed, given the drawbacks of its lesser canal outlet. By the 1880s, Toledo expanded over the vacant streets of Manhattan and Tremainsville, a small town to the west.
In the last half of the 19th century, railroads slowly began to replace canals as the major form of transportation. They were faster and had greater capacity. Toledo soon became a hub for several railroad companies and a hotspot for industries such as furniture producers, carriage makers, breweries, glass manufacturers, and others. Large immigrant populations came to the area, attracted by the many factory jobs available and the city's easy accessibility. By 1880, Toledo was one of the largest cities in Ohio and it added significant infrastructure from its thriving economy.
20th century to present
Toledo continued to expand in population and industry into the early 20th century. Because of its dependence on manufacturing, the city was hit hard by the Great Depression. Many large-scale WPA projects were constructed to reemploy citizens in the 1930s. Some of these include the amphitheater and aquarium at the Toledo Zoo and a major expansion to the Toledo Museum of Art.
In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Toledo's population as 94.8% white and 5.2% black. The city rebounded, but the slump of American manufacturing in the second half of the 20th century during industrial restructuring cost many jobs. In addition, suburbanization and highway development drew more established, middle-class people out of center cities for newer housing.
By the time of the 1980s, Toledo had a depressed economy. The destruction of many buildings downtown, along with several failed business ventures in housing in the core, led to a reverse city-suburb wealth problem common in small cities with land to spare.
In recent years, Downtown Toledo has supported significant redevelopment to draw residents back to the city. Fifth Third Field opened in 2002, and is ranked as one of the top minor-league baseball stadiums and a popular family destination. The multi-purpose Huntington Center opened in 2009. It hosts the Toledo Walleye ECHL ice hockey team, and the Toledo Crush of the Legends Football League. It also is the site of live performances of musicians and bands, and World Wrestling Entertainment.
Toledo is located at (41.665682, −83.575337). The city has a total area of 84.12 square miles (217.87 km2), of which 80.69 square miles (208.99 km2) is land and 3.43 square miles (8.88 km2) is water.
The city straddles the Maumee River at its mouth at the southern end of Maumee Bay, the westernmost inlet of Lake Erie. The city is located north of what had been the Great Black Swamp, giving rise to another nickname, Frog Town. Toledo sits within the borders of a sandy oak savanna called the Oak Openings Region, an important ecological site that once comprised more than 300 square miles (780 km2).
- See also: List of tallest buildings in Toledo, Ohio
Neighborhoods and suburbs
- Five Points
- East Toledo
- Franklin Park
- Harvard Terrace
- Library Village
- North Towne
- Old Orchard
- Old West End
- Old South End
- Old Town
- ONE Village (includes the Polish International Village, Vistula, & North River)
- ONYX (includes historic Kuschwantz and Lenk's Hill neighborhoods)
- Point Place
- Reynolds Corners
- Scott Park
- Secor Gardens(includes the University of Toledo)
- Wernert's Corner
- University Hills
- Warehouse District
- Warren Sherman
According to the US Census Bureau, the Toledo Metropolitan Area covers four Ohio counties and one Michigan county, which combines with other micropolitan areas and counties for a combined statistical area. Some of what are now considered its suburbs in Ohio include: Bowling Green, Holland, Lake Township, Maumee, Millbury, Monclova Township, Northwood, Oregon, Ottawa Hills, Perrysburg, Rossford, Springfield Township, Sylvania, Walbridge, Waterville, Whitehouse, and Washington Township. Bedford Township, Michigan including the communities of Lambertville, Michigan Temperance, Michigan, and Erie Township, Michigan are Toledo's Michigan suburbs, just above the city over the state line in Monroe County.
Toledo, as with much of the Great Lakes region, has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), characterized by four distinct seasons. Both temperature and precipitation vary widely seasonally. Lake Erie moderates the climate somewhat, especially in late spring and fall, when air and water temperature differences are maximal. However, this effect is lessened in the winter by the fact that Lake Erie freezes over in most winters (unlike the other Great Lakes), coupled with prevailing winds that are often westerly. During the summer, southerly and westerly prevailing winds, combined with warm surface waters of Lake Erie, negate the lake's cooling effect. In addition, the lake increases local humidity, adding to discomfort on hot days.
Summers are very warm and humid, with July averaging 73.5 °F (23.1 °C) and temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or more seen on 16.5 days. Winters are cold and somewhat snowy, with a January mean temperature of 25.5 °F (−3.6 °C), and lows at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) on 6.2 nights. The spring and summer months tend to be wetter than autumn and winter. About 37 inches (94 cm) of snow falls per year, much less than the Snow Belt cities, because of the prevailing wind direction. Temperature extremes have ranged from −20 °F (−29 °C) on January 21, 1984 to 105 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1936.
|Climate data for Toledo, Ohio (Toledo Express Airport), 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1871−present|
|Record high °F (°C)||71
|Average high °F (°C)||32.6
|Average low °F (°C)||18.4
|Record low °F (°C)||−20
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.05
|Snowfall inches (cm)||11.6
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||12.7||10.2||11.8||12.0||12.0||10.2||9.8||9.2||9.7||10.0||11.4||13.1||132.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||9.3||7.3||4.9||1.4||0.1||0||0||0||0||0.2||2.3||7.9||33.4|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Black or African American||27.2%||19.7%||13.8%||5.2%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||7.4%||4.0%||1.9%||n/a|
As of the 2010 census, the city proper had a population of 287,128. It is the principal city in the Toledo Metropolitan Statistical Area which had a population of 651,429, while the larger Toledo-Fremont Combined Statistical Area had a population of 712,373. According to the Toledo Metropolitan Council of Governments, the Toledo/Northwest Ohio region of 10 counties has over 1 million residents.
The U.S. Census Bureau estimated Toledo's population as 297,806 in 2006 and 295,029 in 2007. In response to an appeal by the City of Toledo, the Census Bureau's July 2007 estimate was revised to 316,851, slightly more than in 2000, which would have been the city's first population gain in 40 years. However, the 2010 census figures released in March 2011 showed the population as of April 1, 2010, at 287,208, indicating a 25% loss of population since its zenith in 1970.
|Largest ancestries (2010)||Percent|
As of the census of 2010, there were 287,208 people, 119,730 households, and 68,364 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,559.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,374.3/km2). There were 138,039 housing units at an average density of 1,710.7 per square mile (660.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 64.8% White, 27.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 2.6% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.4% of the population (The majority are Mexican American at 5.1%.) Non-Hispanic Whites were 61.4% of the population in 2010, down from 84% in 1970.
There were 119,730 households of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.6% were married couples living together, 19.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.9% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.01. There was a total of 139,871 housing units in the city, of which 10,946 (9.8%) were vacant.
The median age in the city was 34.2 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18; 12.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.3% were from 25 to 44; 24.8% were from 45 to 64; and 12.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.
|Largest ancestries (2000)||Percent|
As of the census of 2000, there were 313,619 people, and 77,355 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,890.2 people per square mile (1,502.0/km²). There were 139,871 housing units at an average density of 1,734.9 per square mile (669.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.2% White, 23.5% African American, 0.3% Native American,1.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.5% of the population in 2000. The most common ancestries cited were German (23.4%), Irish (10.8%), Polish (10.1%), English (6.0%), American (3.9%), Italian (3.0%), Hungarian, (2.0%), Dutch (1.4%), and Arab (1.2%).
In 2000 there were 128,925 households in Toledo, out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.0% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,546, and the median income for a family was $41,175. Males had a median income of $35,407 versus $25,023 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,388. About 14.2% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.
Arts and culture
The Stranahan Theater is a concert hall located on the city's south side. The Toledo Opera has been presenting grand opera in the city since 1959. Its home is the historic Valentine Theatre Downtown. The Toledo Repertoire Theatre was created in 1933 and performs both Broadway hits and lesser-known original works. The Collingwood Arts Center is housed in a 1905 building designed by architect E. O. Fallis in the "Flemish Gothic" style. The parlor is used to showcase art exhibitions while the second and third floor rooms are rented to local artists.
The Toledo Museum of Art is located in a Greek Revival building. The Peristyle is the concert hall in Greek Revival style in its East Wing; it is the home of the Toledo Symphony Orchestra, and hosts many international orchestras as well. The Museum's Center for Visual Arts addition was designed by Frank Gehry and opened in the 21st century. In addition, the museum's new Glass Pavilion across Monroe Street opened in August 2006. Toledo was the first city in Ohio to adopt a One Percent for Art program and, as such, boasts many examples of public, outdoor art. A number of walking tours have been set up to explore these works, which include large sculptures, environmental structures, and murals by more than 40 artists, such as Alice Adams, Pierre Clerk, Dale Eldred, Penelope Jencks, Hans Van De Bovenkamp, Jerry Peart, and Athena Tacha. The Ballet Theatre of Toledo provides an opportunity for area students to study ballet and perform their art.
In popular culture
John Denver recorded "Saturday Night In Toledo, Ohio," composed by Randy Sparks. He wrote it in 1967 after arriving in Toledo with his group and finding no nightlife at 10 p.m. After Denver performed the song on The Tonight Show, Toledo residents objected. In response, the City Fathers recorded a song entitled "We're Strong For Toledo". Ultimately the controversy was such that John Denver cancelled a concert in Toledo shortly thereafter. But when he returned for a 1980 concert, he set a one-show attendance record at the venue, Centennial Hall, and sang the song to the approval of the crowd.
Toledo is the hometown of Corporal Maxwell Klinger in the long-running 1970s television series M*A*S*H. Actor Jamie Farr was from there, and writers gave his character the same home town, with frequent lines about the city during various episodes.
Toledo is also featured as the hometown of the main protagonist, Captain Benjamin L. Willard, played by Martin Sheen in the Vietnam War film Apocalypse Now. In one scene with Colonel Walter E. Kurtz, played by Marlon Brando, he discusses his hometown.
Jane Wyman's character, Helen St. John, is noted as being from Toledo in the Oscar-winning Best Picture of 1945,The Lost Weekend. In the film, her parents come from Toledo to New York to visit Helen and meet her boyfriend Don Birnam (Ray Milland), who spends the weekend drinking.
The Kenny Rogers 1977 hit song "Lucille" was written by Hal Bynum and inspired by his trip to Toledo in 1975.
Toledo is mentioned in the song "Our Song" by Yes from their 1983 album 90125. According to Yes drummer Alan White, Toledo was especially memorable for a sweltering-hot 1977 show the group did at Toledo Sports Arena.
The season 1 episode of the Warner Bros television series Supernatural "Bloody Mary" was set in Toledo.
Toledo is the setting for the 2010 television comedy Melissa & Joey, with the first-named character being a city councilwoman.
Parks and recreation
- The Toledo Zoo was the first zoo to feature a hippoquarium-style exhibit. In 2014 it was ranked as the #1 zoo in the country by USA Today.
- The National Museum of the Great Lakes (NMGL) is located in the Marina District, downstream from downtown Toledo.
- Adjacent to the NMGL, the Col. James M. Schoonmaker is a former Cleveland-Cliffs lake freighter open to the public as a museum. Moored in the Maumee River, the ship was recently repainted in the original Shenango Furnace fleet colors and, on 1 July 2011, rechristened with her original name.
- The R. A. Stranahan Arboretum is a 47-acre (190,000 m2) arboretum maintained by the University of Toledo.
- Tony Packo's Cafe is located in the Hungarian neighborhood on the east side of Toledo known as Birmingham; it features hundreds of hot dog buns signed by celebrities.
- The Toledo Metroparks system includes over 10,000 acres (40 km2) of land, and features the University/Parks Bicycle Trail and the Toledo Botanical Garden.
- On January 15, 1936, the first building to be completely covered in glass was constructed in Toledo. It was a building for the Owens-Illinois Glass Company and marked a milestone in architectural design representative of the International style of architecture, which was at that time becoming increasingly popular in the US.
- The Imagination Station hands-on science museum (formerly COSI Toledo), is located in downtown.
- The Toledo Lucas County Public Library was 4-star rated for 2009 by the Library Journal, and it is sixth among the biggest-spending libraries in the United States.
- Toledo has the University Bike and Walking Trail, which is 6.3 miles (10.1 km). This trail goes northwest from The University of Toledo to Sylvania, Ohio.
- Hollywood Casino Toledo opened on May 29, 2012.
Toledo linked with Toledo, Spain as sister cities in 1931, creating the first Sister Cities relationship in North America. In total Toledo has twelve sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI):
- Beqaa Valley, Lebanon
- Coimbatore, India
- Csongrad County, Hungary
- Delmenhorst, Germany
- Hyderabad, Pakistan
- Londrina, Brazil
- Poznań, Poland
- Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China
- Szeged, Hungary
- Tanga, Tanzania
- Toledo, Spain
- Toyohashi, Japan
Images for kids
Toledo, Ohio Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.