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Frederick Russell Burnham
Major Frederick Russell Burnham DSO 1901.jpg
Nickname(s) The King of Scouts; He-who-sees-in-the-dark; Fred
Allegiance Scout for the British Army in Southern Africa; U.S. citizen.
Years of service 1893–1897, 1900–1901
Rank Major
Commands held Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts
Battles/wars Pleasant Valley War
Indian Wars:
— Apache Wars
— Cheyenne War
Geronimo campaign
First Matabele War:
— Shangani Patrol
Second Matabele War:
— Assassination of Mlimo
Second Boer War:
— Battle of Paardeberg
— Driefontein (March 10, 1900)
— Johannesburg (May 31, 1900)
— March on Pretoria (June 2–5, 1900)
Awards Distinguished Service Order
Queen's South Africa Medal
British South Africa Company Medal
Victoria Cross (declined)
Boy Scouts Silver Buffalo Award
Mount Burnham (California).
Other work messenger, Indian tracker, gold miner, rich oil man, American spy. Father of the international Scouting movement and a close friend of Robert Baden-Powell.

Frederick Russell Burnham DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American scout. He travelled the world and had many adventures. He served to the British Army in colonial Africa and for taught scouting to Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of the boy scouts.

Burnham attended high school but never graduated. When he was 14 he began his working as a scout and tracker for the U.S. Army. As an adult Burnham went to Africa where this background proved useful. He soon became an officer in the British Army and fought in several battles there. During this time Burnham became friends with Baden-Powell and taught him both his outdoor skills and his spirit for what became known as Scouting.

Burnham eventually became involved in espionage, oil, conservation, writing and business. His descendants are still active in Scouting.

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