List of fjords in Canada facts for kids
Fjords in Canada are long, narrow inlets characterized by steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. A fjord can have two or more basins separated by sills. The bowls can have a depth of 20 to 500 m (66 to 1,640 ft) and the dividing sills can raise up to a few metres below the water surface. Mountainous glaciated areas in Canada are along the British Columbia Coast: from the Alaskan border along the Portland Canal to Indian Arm. Kingcome Inlet is a typical west coast fjord.
In Newfoundland and Labrador, Saglek Fiord, Nachvak Fiord, and Hebron Fiord, are in Labrador. While Western Brook Pond, Trout River Big Pond, and Bonne Bay in Gros Morne National Park are located along the coastline of the island of Newfoundland.
When a portion of the high cliff wall falls off, it may cause a tsunami. This occurred in the early 20th century at Western Brook Pond of Gros Morne National Park when a 30 m (98 ft) tsunami was created after Broke Off Cliff fell.
Fjords listed here may consist of several complex waterways. These waterways may contribute to the length of the fjord. For more information on these please see the main fjord source or Wikipedia article. Some examples are Dean Channel and Douglas Channel. The locality of Hagensborg in the Bella Coola Valley in the Dean Channel fjord was settled by Norwegian immigrants in 1894 as it reminded them of home. The total length of the fjord from the head of Dean Channel to the mouth of Fitz Hugh Sound is about 170 km (110 mi) rivalling Hardangerfjord in Norway for length. The Hardangerfjord, the Queen of fjords, at a length of 179 km (111 mi) is claimed to be fourth largest fjord in the world and second largest of Norway.
Anaktalak Bay, Saglek Fiord and Nachvak Fiord off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador are being studied for environmental changes due to global warming. Increased tourism and marine traffic, contaminants from air, water or industrial pollution, changing weather patterns are affecting what once had been pristine water basins of the fjords protected by sills.
The use of the word canal to name fjords or inlets on the British Columbian and Southeast Alaskan coast is a legacy of the Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest in the 18th century. For example, Haro Strait between Victoria and the San Juan Islands was originally Canal de Haro. The English cognate to the Spanish canal is "channel", which is found throughout the coast, cf. Dean Channel.
Some fjords on the British Columbian coast have rapids, termed skookumchucks which means strong waters in Chinook Jargon). Skookumchucks are caused by the shallows and narrows near the mouth of a fjord as the water inside the fjord's depths is drawn through, to or from, the more open waters beyond.
The phenomenon of mountain-gap wind or squamish or outflow affects the fjords of Canada and Norway. The outflow winds at the Salt and Bols fjords of Norway and the Howe Sound and Portland Inlet of Canada have been compared. European winds may be termed bora. The cold dry air of the continental interior seeks out the easier passage through the fjord valley creating hurricane-force winds.
According to the definition, fjord, Western Brook Pond and Trout River Big Pond in Newfoundland's Gros Morne National Park, are also often described as a fjords, but are actually freshwater lakes cut off from the sea, so is not a fjord in the English sense of the term. Such lakes are sometimes called "fjord lakes". It is of interest to note that Pissing Mare Falls at 350 m (1,150 ft) high, is one of several waterfalls to drain into Western Brook Pond, Along the British Columbia Coast, a notable fjord-lake is Owikeno Lake, which is a freshwater extension of Rivers Inlet.
List of fjords
|Aarrujaaqtuup Kangiqtua||NU||Inuktitut syllabics: ᐋᕐᕈᔮᖅᑑᑉ ᑲᖏᖅᑐᐊ, Aarrujaaqtuup Kangiqtua (formerly Pitchforth Fiord)|
|Alberni Inlet||BC||Length 40 km (25 mi)|
|Alluviaq Fiord||NU||Alluviaq Fiord / Fjord Alluviaq (formerly Abloviak Bay / Abloviak Fiord / Fjord Abloviak)|
|Arviqtujuq Kangiqtua||NU||Arviqtujuq Kangiqtua (formerly Eglinton Fiord)|
|Baie Wakeham||QC||Wakeham Bay|
|Belize Inlet||BC||A part of the fjord network Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex (SBIC), located on the north coast of British Columbia. Belize Inlet, which is 50 km (31 mi) in length has its own side inlets, narrow waterways named Wentworth Sound and Alison Sound.|
|Bonne Bay||NL||There is both Inner Bonne Bay and outer Bonne Bay. Outer Bonne Bay opens up to the entrance of the fjord of Bonne Bay.|
|Burke Channel||BC||See also the major inlets of British Columbia coast, and Dean Channel.
|Burrard Inlet||BC||Burrard Inlet is a relatively shallow-sided coastal fjord in southwestern British Columbia.|
|Chief Mathews Bay||BC||See also the major inlets of British Columbia coast.|
|Dean Channel||BC||The total length of the fjord from the head of Dean Channel to the mouth of Fitz Hugh Sound is about 170 km (110 mi) rivalling Hardangerfjord in Norway for length.|
|Desolation Sound||BC||See also the major inlets of British Columbia coast, Desolation Sound Marine Provincial Park and Recreation Park.|
|Disraeli Fiord||NU||Disraeli Fiord (formerly Disraeli Bay)|
|Douglas Channel||BC||Length 90 km (56 mi)|
|Europa Reach||BC||See also list of rivers of British Columbia and British Columbia Coast|
|Fisher Channel||BC||Fisher Channel leads into Dean Channel, and towards Ocean Falls.|
|Fitz Hugh Sound||BC||See also Dean Channel.|
|Fjord Alluviaq||QC||Alluviaq Fiord / Fjord Alluviaq (formerly Abloviak Bay / Abloviak Fiord / Fjord Abloviak)|
|Fjord de Salluit||QC|
|Fjord du Saguenay||QC||Southernmost fjord in Canada.|
|Frederick Sound||BC||The largest branch of Seymour Inlet.|
|Gardner Canal||BC||Technically a side-inlet of the larger Douglas Channel. The Gardner is a principal inlet/fjord of a length 90 km (56 mi).|
|Grise Fiord||NU||There is a hamlet of the same name, Grise Fiord on this fiord. Grise Fiord means "pig fiord" and in Inuktitut is named Ausuittuq.|
|Hebron Fiord||NL||See also Torngat Mountains|
|Hotham Sound||BC||See also the major inlets of British Columbia coast, Nelson Island and St. Vincent Bay.|
|Howe Sound||BC||Howe Sound is a roughly triangular-shaped complex of fjords. The scenic Sea-to-Sky Highway runs along the eastern shore of the sound.|
|Indian Arm||BC||Indian Arm Provincial Park protects the area of Indian Arm fjord.|
|Isortoq Fiord||NU||Iterungnek Fiord (formerly Jerusalem Bay)|
|Jervis Inlet||BC||Jervis Inlet is 90 km (56 mi) in length. Between Toba Inlet and Jervis Inlet to its west, however, there is a freshwater fjord, Powell Lake.|
|Kangiqhuk||NU||Kangiqhuk (formerly West Arm)|
|Kangiqtualuk Agguqti||NU||Kangiqtualuk Agguqti (formerly Walker Arm)|
|Kangiqtualuk Uqquqti||NU||Kangiqtualuk Uqquqti (formerly Sam Ford Fiord)|
|Kangiqtugaapik||NU||Kangiqtugaapik (formerly Clyde Inlet)|
|Kangiqtugaapiruluk||NU||Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᖅᑐᒑᐱᕈᓗᒃ, Kangiqtugaapiruluk (formerly Kangert Fiord)|
|Kangiqturuluk||NU||Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᖅᑐᕈᓗᒃ, Kangiqturuluk (formerly Kangok Fiord)|
|Kingcome Inlet||BC||A lesser principal fjord of the British Columbia Coast.|
|Kitimat Arm||BC||See also Douglas Channel and Kitimat River.|
|Knight Inlet||BC||Knight Inlet is one of the longest great saltwater inlets/fjords on the BC Coast at c. 125 km (78 mi) in length; it is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) in average width.|
|Kumlien Fiord||NU||Kumlien Fiord (formerly Kumlein Fiord)|
|Kwatna Inlet||BC||See also Dean Channel.|
|Labouchere Channel||BC||See also North Bentinck Arm, King Island, and Dean Channel.|
|Loughborough Inlet||BC||Loughborough Inlet is a lesser principal inlet/fjord with a length of 35 km (22 mi) and a width of 2.5 km (1.6 mi).|
|McBeth Fiord||NU||McBeth Fiord (formerly Ijellirtung Fiord)|
|Narrows Inlet||BC||Narrows Inlet (formerly Narrows Arm)|
|North Bentinck Arm||BC||See also South Bentinck Arm. North Bentinck Arm is a deep fjord which runs about 15 km (9.3 mi) in length and is about 2.3 km (1.4 mi) in width. The fjord has a depth between 200 to 400 m (660 to 1,310 ft).|
|North Pangnirtung Fiord||NU|
|Nugent Sound||BC||Located between Belize Inlet and Seymour Inlet.|
|Pearse Canal||BC||Pearse Canal forms the border between British Columbia and the southernmost point of the Alaska Panhandle.|
|Portland Canal||BC||Portland Canal is 114.6 km (71.2 mi) in length.|
|Portland Inlet||BC||Portland Inlet is 40 km (25 mi) long and as much as 13 km (8.1 mi) wide.|
|Prince of Wales Reach||BC||The Prince of Wales Reach has a length of 40 km (25 mi), a depth of 670 m (2,200 ft) and reaches the first arm of Jervis Inlet.|
|Prince Rupert Harbour||BC||The immense, Prince Rupert Harbour, operated by the Prince Rupert Port Authority, is a complex of basins or channel waterways and sills. In alphabetical order the channels, and their respective sills are:
|Princess Louisa Inlet||BC||Princess Louisa Inlet is at the north east end of Jervis Inlet, and the east side of Queens Reach, and has a length of 6 km (3.7 mi), a width of 0.8 km (0.50 mi) and a depth of 179 m (587 ft).|
|Princess Royal Reach||BC||Princess Royal Reach is the second arm of the Jervis Inlet, between Queens Reach and Prince of Wales Reach, and has a length of 33 km (21 mi) and a maximum depth of 552 m (1,811 ft).|
|Qarmaarjuit||NU||Inuktitut syllabics: ᖃᕐᒫᕐᔪᐃᑦ, Qarmaarjuit (Formerly Amadjuak Bay)|
|Quatsino Sound||BC||Quatsino Sound is one of five sounds that pierce the west coast of Vancouver Island.|
|Queen Charlotte Strait||BC||See also the major inlets of British Columbia coast.|
|Queens Reach||BC||Queens Reach is the last arm of [[Jervis Inl, and is 34 km (21 mi) long and 457 m (1,499 ft) deep.|
|Rivers Inlet||BC||The entrance to Rivers Inlet is from Dean Channel near that fjord's mouth. It is about 45 km (28 mi) in length.|
|Royal Society Fiord||NU|
|Saanich Inlet||BC||Saanich Inlet is 24 km (15 mi) long, has a surface area of 65 km2 (25 sq mi), and its maximum depth is 225 m (738 ft).|
|Salmon Inlet||BC||Salmon Inlet (formerly Salmon Arm)|
|Sarvalik||NU||Inuktitut syllabics: ᓴᕐᕙᓕᒃ, Sarvalik (formerly Sarvalik Fiord)|
|Sechelt Inlet||BC||Sechelt Inlet is one of the principal inlets/fjords along the British Columbia Coast comprising Narrows Inlet and Salmon Inlet.Sechelt Inlet (formerly Seechelt Inlet)|
|Seymour Inlet||BC||A part of the fjord network, Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex (SBIC), located on the north coast of British Columbia. Seymour Inlet is one of the lesser travelled of the principal inlets/fjords of the British Columbia Coast and the main arm is 75 km (47 mi) long.|
|Skookumchuck Narrows||BC||Skookumchuck Narrows forms the entrance of Sechelt Inlet|
|South Bentinck Arm||BC|
|South Cape Fiord||NU|
|Tanquary Fiord||NU||A part of the Quttinirpaaq National Park of Canada|
|Tasialuk||NU||Structurally a fjord, part of Baffin Island's northeastern coast fjord system. Tasialuk (formerly Ayr Lake).|
|Toba Inlet||BC||Toba Inlet is one of the lesser of the principal inlets/fjords of the British Columbia Coast amidst the Coast Mountain Range. Between Toba Inlet and Jervis Inlet to its west, however, there is a freshwater fjord, Powell Lake|
|Trout River Big Pond||NL|
|Trout Trap Fiord||NL|
|Uivvaruluup Kangiqtuttaivanga||NU||Inuktitut syllabics: ᐅᐃᕝᕙᕈᓘᑉ ᑲᖏᖅᑐᑦᑕᐃᕙᖓ|
|West Cape Fiord||NU|
|Western Brook Pond||NL||Western Brook Pond, at 16 km (9.9 mi) in length, is a fjord or lake located in Gros Morne National Park amidst the Long Range Mountains, in the Appalachian Mountains range.|
|Whidbey Reach||BC||Part of Gardner Canal, located near its eastern end, between Barrie Reach and Egeria Reach portions of Gardner Canal|
|Work Channel||BC||Work Channel (formerly Wark Channel)|
List of fjords in Canada Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.