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Redland City
Location within South East Queensland
Population 156,863 (2018) (46th)
 • Density 292.001/km2 (756.28/sq mi)
Established 1948
Area 537.2 km2 (207.4 sq mi)
Mayor Karen Williams
Council seat Cleveland
Region South East Queensland
State electorate(s)
  • Capalaba
  • Oodgeroo
  • Redlands
  • Springwood (part)
Federal Division(s) Bowman
Redlands city council.svg
Website Redland City
LGAs around Redland City:
Brisbane Moreton Bay Region Pacific Ocean
Brisbane Redland City Pacific Ocean
Logan Gold Coast Pacific Ocean

Redland City, better known as the Redlands and formerly known as Redland Shire, is a local government area and a part of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland. With a population of 156,863 in June 2018, the city is spread along the southern coast of Moreton Bay, covering 537.2 square kilometres (207.4 sq mi). Its mainland borders the City of Brisbane to the west and north-west, and Logan City to the south-west and south, while its islands are situated north of the City of Gold Coast.

Redland attained city status on 15 March 2008, having been a shire since 1949, when it was created by the merger of the former Tingalpa and Cleveland Shires. Despite this status, the City consists of largely suburban and coastal communities, featuring a somewhat disjointed urbanisation around major suburbs interspersed with bushland; there is no clear city centre.

Large mainland suburbs include Capalaba, Cleveland, Victoria Point, and Redland Bay. The latter is the city's namesake, due to the colour of its fertile soil. North Stradbroke Island and smaller nearby islands, most notably those of Southern Moreton Bay, comprise the eastern portion of the Redlands. The city's boundaries correspond to those of the federal division of Bowman.


The area now known as the Redlands was initially inhabited by the Jagera, Turrbal, and Quandamooka people. Europeans first entered the Redlands in the late 18th century while mapping Moreton Bay: James Cook made observations of the then-undivided Stradbroke Island; Matthew Flinders landed on Coochiemudlo Island in 1799; and Robert Dixon later surveyed and named much of the area.

By the 1840s, the coastal township of Cleveland was in contention to become a major port replacing Brisbane, but was ultimately not chosen due to the region's existing sandbars and shipwrecks, and an unfavourable review from Governor George Gipps during his 1842 visit. Louis Hope and other land purchasers began to develop significant infrastructure at this time. On 11 November 1879, under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, the Tingalpa Division was created to govern the area to the east of metropolitan Brisbane. The area around Cleveland split away to form the Cleveland Division on 30 May 1885. Under the Local Authorities Act 1902, both became Shires on 31 March 1903. The Tingalpa council met at Mount Cotton.

On 1 October 1925, a sizeable portion of the Shire of Tingalpa (suburbs west of Tingalpa Creek, including Upper Mount Gravatt and Rochedale) became part of the new City of Brisbane along with 20 other local governments. On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council renamed the Shire of Cleveland to be Shire of Redland and amalgamated part of Shire of Tingalpa into it (the other part of Tingalpa amalgamated to form the Shire of Albert).

The twentieth century saw significant population growth in the Redlands, preceded by the construction of the Cleveland railway line. Peel Island became a leper colony, while North Stradbroke Island became a hub for sand mining, and is also associated with the Indigenous rights movement as the home of poet Oodgeroo Noonuccal and academic Aileen Moreton-Robinson. On 15 March 2008, Redlands was granted city status.


Bay Islands
Satellite view from the southwest of Southern Moreton Bay, Queensland - labelled are the many islands created from the outflow of the Logan River behind the barrier of North and South Stradbroke Islands

Although most of the population resides on the main urban conglomeration based around the centres of Capalaba, Cleveland and Victoria Point, over 6,000 people live on islands in Moreton Bay that are part of the City. These are North Stradbroke, Coochiemudlo and the Southern Moreton Bay Islands of Karragarra, Lamb, Russell and Macleay. Tingalpa Creek rises on Mount Cotton, forming Leslie Harrison Dam, and marking the majority of the area's western boundary.


Wellington Point Railway Station, Queensland, Aug 2012
Wellington Point station, the Redlands' third stop along the Cleveland line

Queensland Rail operates the Cleveland railway line, which connects the Redlands with Brisbane as part of its City network. The line runs parallel with the Brisbane River to its south, passing through Brisbane's Cannon Hill and Wynnum, before crossing Tingalpa Creek to enter Redland City. Northern suburbs of the city are serviced by five stations: Thorneside, Birkdale, Wellington Point, Ormiston, and Cleveland, where the line terminates.

The TransLink (South East Queensland) bus network is prevalent in the Redlands. Bus stations at Capalaba and Victoria Point feature regular city-bound and outbound connections, with direct services to Carindale, Eight Mile Plains, Loganholme, and the Brisbane CBD during peak hour. Upon pending completion, the Eastern Busway is expected to terminate at Capalaba bus station.

The Gateway Motorway and Pacific Motorway are located further west within the City of Brisbane. Major roads are accessible from these highways, such as Old Cleveland Road, Mount Gravatt-Capalaba Road, and Mount Cotton Road, which enter the Redlands from Chandler, Burbank, and Cornubia, respectively.

Culture and heritage

Redland Museum
Redland Museum, viewed from the Cleveland Showgrounds

Redland City has a number of important cultural facilities, including the Redland Art Gallery, Redland Museum, and Redland Performing Arts Centre.

The City also has many heritage-listed sites, including:


Redland City consists of the following suburbs and localities:

View towards Moreton Bay from Mount View Road
View east, towards Redland and Moreton Bay, from Mount Cotton, 2014
Cassim Island at Sunrise viewed from G.J. Walter Park
Cassim Island, viewed from G.J. Walter Park in Cleveland

Redland City also includes a number of uninhabited or sparsely populated islands in Moreton Bay, including:

  • Peel Island
  • Cassim Island, near Cleveland: a low-lying area of mangroves with seagrass around it which provides a high value habitat for wading birds and other fauna, named after William Cassim, an early Cleveland hotel keeper.


Venman Bushland National Park picnic area
Picnic area of Venman Bushland National Park in Mount Cotton
Year Population
1947 5,211
1954 7,365
1961 10000
1966 12,632
1971 16,672
1976 27,539
1981 42,527
1986 58,501
1991 80,690
1996 100,101
2001 117,252
2006 131,210
2012 145,336


Cleveland Harbour
Raby Bay Marina, viewed from the centre of Cleveland

For the year ending 30 June 2014, Redland City's Gross Regional Product (GRP) was estimated to be 4.77 billion dollars.

Year (Ending June) Redland City – % Change in GRP Queensland –  % Change in GRP
2014 1.7 1.7
2013 1.7 2.6
2012 5.0 6.2
2011 1.6 0.7
2010 2.0 0.0
2009 1.0 0.6
Wiki Eastern Curlew Oyster Pt Cleveland 112 edit 2 comp
Eastern curlew visiting the shore of Cleveland

Key industry sectors include health care and social assistance, retail trade, education and training, sand mining, construction and tourism.

During the year ending in June 2014, an estimated 41,506 jobs were located in Redland City, along with an estimated 74,089 employed residents, meaning 32,035 (or 47.1%) of Redland City's employed residents who work travel outside of the area to do so.

Year (Ending June) Redland City – Employed Residents Redland City – Local Jobs
2014 74,089 41,506
2013 74,141 41,788
2012 74,633 43,138
2011 73,863 43,485
2010 73,033 42,888
2009 73,207 41,829


North Stradbroke Island, one of the world's largest sand islands, has been the subject of sand mining operations since 1949. In 2010, Queensland's Labor Government announced a phase-out of the sand mining industry over a 17-year period, with up to 80% of the island to be covered by national park. In April 2011, the government then extended key expired mining leases to allow mining to continue at the main Enterprise sand mine until the end of 2019, while Sibelco was interested in an extension to 2027. 2013 saw the LNP Government pass legislation allowing sand mining on the island for an extra 16 years: from 2019 to 2035. For mining to continue past 2019 at the Enterprise sand mine, the lease owner (currently Sibelco) would have to apply for an extension in 2019, under legislative amendments passed by the Newman Government in November 2013. However, if the amendments are repealed by a future government before 2019, the mine will close on 31 December 2019, the closure date legislated by the government in April 2011.

The circumstances leading up to this legislative amendment have been referred to Queensland's Crime and Misconduct Commission. On 6 June 2014, North Stradbroke Island's traditional owners, the Quandamooka people, initiated a legal challenge saying, on the grounds that the LNP Government's extension of mining contravened the Federal Native Title Act. In May 2016, legislation passed by the Palaszczuk Ministry did confirm that sand mining on North Stradbroke will end by 2019.

Mainland quarries are located in the suburb of Mount Cotton, and have drawn their own criticisms concerning allegations of pollution and OHS breaches.


Protest against Toondah PDA plan 23 February 2014
Protest against the planned marina and high-rise buildings in Cleveland

Toondah Harbour in Cleveland is the location of the Stradbroke Island Ferry Terminal, used by water taxis and vehicular ferries to provide access to North Stradbroke Island. Cleveland's Toondah Harbour and Redland Bay's Weinam Creek were declared Priority Development Areas (PDAs) under the Economic Development Act 2012 on 21 June 2013. PDA designation allows development to be fast-tracked, but also means that local communities and interest groups have less opportunity to comment on issues of concern.

The Government and Redland City Council have proposed PDA development schemes which have attracted community opposition. On 23 February, approximately 30 people attended a rally to protest against the Government's plans to "carve up" the G.J. Walter Park as part of its Toondah Harbour redevelopment proposal. On 4 March 2014 a petition with 1,211 signatures calling for the Government's Toondah Harbour PDA plan to be withdrawn was tabled in the Queensland Parliament.

On 31 May 2014, an approved development scheme was released together with a lengthy report on the 583 submissions received during the consultation period.

On 18 September 2014, the Government and Council announced that Walker Corporation had been selected as preferred developer for both the Toondah Harbour and Weinam Creek priority development areas.

Capalaba Library
Entrance to the Capalaba Library, 2008


According to the 2016 census, the population of the Redlands was 147,010. The median age was 41 years old, 3 years older than the nationwide median. The male-to-female ratio was 49-to-51.

The most commonly nominated ancestries were English (32.1%), Australian (25.2%), Irish (9.0%), Scottish (8.6%), and German (4.5%). 72.5% of people were born in Australia, while the other most common countries of birth were England (6.7%), New Zealand (5.4%), South Africa (1.7%), Scotland (0.9%), and the Philippines (0.5%). Indigenous Australians accounted for 2.3% of the population.

The most commonly spoken languages other than English were Afrikaans and Mandarin (0.5% each), German (0.4%), and Italian and Spanish (0.3% each). The most common religious affiliations reported were none (29.8%), Catholic (21.1%), Anglican (17.9%), and Uniting Church (6.1%).


Venman Bushland National Park picnic area
Picnic area of Venman Bushland National Park in Mount Cotton

The following table lists of the population of Redland City and its predecessor local government areas:.

Year Population
1947 5,211
1954 7,365
1961 10000
1966 12,632
1971 16,672
1976 27,539
1981 42,527
1986 58,501
1991 80,690
1996 100,101
2001 117,252
2006 131,210
2012 145,336
2016 147,010
2020 160,331

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See also

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