|Republic of China
|Anthem: "National Anthem of the Republic of China"
"National Flag Anthem"
Depicting the Free area of the Republic of China
|Largest city||New Taipei City|
|Recognised regional languages||Taiwanese
|Official scripts||Traditional Chinese|
|Ethnic groups||98% Han
|Demonym||Taiwanese or Chinese or both|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|-||Vice President||Chen Chien-jen|
|-||President of the Legislative Yuan||Wang Jin-pyng (KMT)|
|-||President of the Judicial Yuan||Rai Hau-min|
|-||President of the Control Yuan||Wang Chien-shien (NP)|
|-||President of the Examination Yuan||Kuan Chung (KMT)|
|Establishment Xinhai Revolution|
|-||Wuchang Uprising||10 October 1911|
|-||Republic established||1 January 1912|
|-||Constitution||25 December 1947|
|-||Total||36,193 km2 (136th)
13,974 sq mi
|-||2012 estimate||23,261,747 (50th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|-||Total||$876.035 billion (19th)|
|-||Per capita||$37,719 (19th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|-||Total||$466.832 billion (26th)|
|-||Per capita||$20,100 (39th)|
|HDI (2010)|| 0.868
|Currency||New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC+8)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+8)|
(CE; CE+2697) or 民國yy年m月d日
|Drives on the||right|
|Internet TLD||.tw, .台灣, .台湾|
Taiwan (also known as Formosa) officially the Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), is a state in East Asia. It is the nationalist government of China since its settlement in 1949. It is called the Republic of China (ROC) (also called Taiwan) which is a special region comprising the island of Taiwan and nearby islands (Pescadores islands and parts of Fujian). The Chinese Nationalist government (Kuomintang also called KMT) moved to Taiwan after the Communist army took over the capital of Beijing. Currently, the Chinese Nationalist government governs Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Taiwan is southeast of the China mainland, south of Japan, and north of the Philippines.
Formosa is the Portuguese name of Taiwan, which means "beautiful" in Portuguese.
Most people living in Taiwan (sometimes called Taiwanese) are Han. There are also Taiwanese Aborigines who have lived in Taiwan before the Han came to live there.
Taiwan has three large Han groups. They speak different dialects of Chinese and their ancestors came from different places: the Southern Fujianese (from China's Fujian Province), the Hakka (from China), and Mainlanders (from Mainland China after 1948).
- 1517: A Portuguese ship sees the island and names it "Ilha Formosa", or "Beautiful Island" in Portuguese.
- 17th century: From 1624 until 1661 Dutch colonize the southern part of Formosa and established a colonial administration in Fort Zeelandia, and the Spanish colonize the north and established a colonial administration in Fuerte Santo Domingo or Fort Santo Domingo. The Dutch eventually defeated the Spaniards and took full control of Formosa. A Chinese general named Koxinga, defeated the Dutch at the Siege of Fort Zeelandia.
- 1860: Taiwan becomes a treaty port following the Treaty of Tientsin, opening the island to contact with the world.
- 1874: Japan invaded southern Taiwan, seemingly to "punish" the aborigines there for the murder of ship-wrecked Okinawan fishermen in 1871, but actually to establish a colony. Japanese forced withdraw later in the year after the Meiji and Qing empires nearly went to war.
- 1884-1885: Taiwan is blockaded by French navy during the Sino-Franco War.
- 1895: Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War and gave Taiwan to Japan permanently.
- 1945: Japan lost in World War II to USA and gave up Taiwan permanently.
- 1946: USA accepts millions refugees and soldiers from China to Taiwan and USA President installs The Republic of China to govern Taiwan and to fight China and communism.
- 1947: Taiwanese widely protest governmental corruption under the Nationalists. Chiang Kai-shek sends in the army to restore order, killing tens of thousands. Some Taiwanese began the Taiwan independence movement.
- Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) party and the Communist Party of China (CCP).
- The Nationalists (KMT) lose the war, and escape to the island of Taiwan. They set up Taipei as the temporary capital of China (ROC).
- The Communist Party of China (CCP) establishes Beijing as the capital of The People's Republic of China (PRC).
- 1951: Japan signs the Treaty of San Francisco (1951) with USA.
- 1979: The KMT government jails many democracy activists who opposed it (Kaohsiung Incident).
- 1986: The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is formed; it is the first party to form in the ROC other than the KMT. It remains illegal for several years, but the KMT government does not try to ban it.
- 1987: The KMT government lifts the martial law after almost 40 years.
- 2000: Chen Shui-bian (DPP) becomes president.
- 2004: Chen Shui-bian is re-elected after a controversial assassination attempt, in which many KMT-supporters believed, was staged by Chen. However, after unwillingness to cooperate about his medical records the investigation was inconclusive.
- 2008: Former president Chen Sui-bian and his wife are arrested for corruption and money laundering.
- 2008: Ma Ying-jeou was elected as the president of the Republic of China and thus creating a change of political parties for the second time.
- 2009: Kaohsiung hosts the 2009 World Games.
- 2016: Tsai Ing-wen was elected as the first female president of Taiwan.
Status of Taiwan
There are two Chinese governments in the world: The People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). Today, in reality, the PRC government controls mainland China, and the ROC government governs Taiwan. The ROC government governed most of China mainland from 1911 to 1949, before losing control of China mainland to the PRC.
Today, people who live in Taiwan have different ideas. Although many Taiwanese think there is no freedom in China, there are still some Taiwanese who want to be united again with China. The majority of the people in Taiwan want to keep everything like it is now.
Today most countries of the world recognize the People's Republic of China as China. Even though Taiwan is not recognized by the UN as a sovereign nation, most countries still have close economic and cultural relations with Taiwan. So, both sides are not making any big changes from the political status quo. This policy was expressed in a 1992 Consensus among some leaders of both sides.
In March 2004, China's government passed a law called the Anti-Secession Law. The law requires the Chinese military to invade Taiwan immediately if they declare independence. The law shows China's concern over a growing move towards independence by the government of Taiwan.
The island of Taiwan is about 180 kilometers off the southeastern coast of China. It is across the Taiwan Strait. It has an area of 35,883 km2 (13,855 sq mi). The East China Sea is to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest.
Taiwan's highest point is Yu Shan (Jade Mountain). It is 3,952 meters high (12,966 ft). There are five other peaks over 3,500 meters.
The Penghu Islands are 50 km (31.1 mi) west of the main island. They have an area of 126.9 km2 (49.0 sq mi). More distant islands controlled by the Republic of China are the Kinmen, Wuchiu and Matsu Islands off the coast of Fujian. They have a total area of 180.5 km2 (69.7 sq mi). The Pratas Islands and Taiping Island in the South China Sea have a total area of 2.9 km2 (1.1 sq mi). They have no permanent inhabitants.
The largest cities in Taiwan are:
|Rank||Division name||Chinese name||Type||Population|
|1||New Taipei City||新北市||Special municipality||3,903,745|
|2||Kaohsiung City||高雄市||Special municipality||2,772,461|
|3||Taichung City||臺中市 (台中市)||Special municipality||2,655,456|
|4||Taipei City||臺北市 (台北市)||Special municipality||2,635,766|
|5||Tainan City||臺南市 (台南市)||Special municipality||1,874,724|
|6||Hsinchu City||新竹市||Provincial city||417,335|
|7||Taoyuan City||桃園市||County-controlled city||408,304|
|8||Keelung City||基隆市||Provincial city||381,770|
|9||Zhongli City||中壢市||County-controlled city||370,779|
|10||Chiayi City||嘉義市||Provincial city||272,128|
|11||Changhua City||彰化市||County-controlled city||236,447|
|12||Pingtung City||屏東市||County-controlled city||210,275|
|13||Pingzhen City||平鎮市||County-controlled city||207,953|
|14||Bade City||八德市||County-controlled city||177,020|
|15||Yangmei City||楊梅市||County-controlled city||151,384|
|16||Zhubei City||竹北市||County-controlled city||144,234|
|17||Hualien City||花蓮市||County-controlled city||108,938|
|18||Taitung City||臺東市||County-controlled city||108,648|
|19||Douliu City||斗六市||County-controlled city||107,012|
|20||Nantou City||南投市||County-controlled city||104,069|
Japanese colonial soldiers march Taiwanese captured after the Tapani Incident from the Tainan jail to court, 1915.
Republic of China troops celebrating Taiwan's retrocession at Zhongshan Hall, 1945. However, the said retrocession has been questioned in the light of international law.
US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Taiwan's special envoy to the APEC summit, Lien Chan, November 2011
The ruling DPP has traditionally leaned in favour of Taiwan independence and rejects the so-called "One-China policy".
The Presidential Southern Office in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung opened on 10 March 2017.
Tangwai (Independent) Taiwanese-born politician Wu San-lien (2L) celebrated his landslide victory (65.5%) in Taipei City's first mayoral election in January 1951 with supporters.
Taipei 101 held the world record for skyscraper height from 2004 to 2010.
A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President
Taiwan Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.