Salzburg facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
View of Salzburg City Centre
View of Salzburg City Centre
Coat of arms of Salzburg
Coat of arms
Location within Austria
Country Austria
State Salzburg
District Statutory city
 • Total 65.678 km2 (25.358 sq mi)
Elevation 424 m (1,391 ft)
 • Total 9,382,278
 • Density 142,852.7/km2 (369,986.7/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 5020
Area code 0662
Vehicle registration S
Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg *
The old town seen over the River Salzach, viewed from the Hohensalzburg fortress.
Country  Austria
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 784
Region ** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1996 (20th Session)

Salzburg is the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg or Salzburgerland. The population is about 150,000 and is the 4th largest city of Austria.

Its most famous citizen was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Another famous inhabitant of Salzburg was the physicist Christian Doppler who found the Doppler effect which was named after him.

The Salzach river crosses the city. The old town was adopted by the UNESCO as World Heritage Site in 1996. Known is Salzburg also for being one of the settings for the movie "The Sound of Music" which based on the musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein.


People lived in Salzburg since the New Stone Age till present. The oldest finding in the city area is dated around 4500 B.C. From 15 B.C. onwards after the Roman occupation the city was called Iuvavum. The roman city was situated in today's old town around the Waagplatz. The city became an important place from the east to the province of Germania. The Romans left on the beginning of the barbarian migration around 500. Up to 696 only few can be said about the history. 696 the city was given to bishop Rupert by Duke Theodo II. of Bavaria. Rupert was orderd by the Duke to bring Christianity to the east and southeast of his country. Rupert founded the monastery St. Peter and for women the monastery Nonnberg. 739 Salzburg became the seat of a bishop and 774 the first cathedral was built. 998 Salzburg became archbishopric ruling the whole Bavarian area.

In the Middle Ages Salzburg became wealthy by the trade with salt from the nearby Dürnberg in Hallein. Till th 14th century Salzburg became independent from Bavaria and was a state within the Holy Roman Empire. The citizens of Salzburg were under the command of the archbishop unlike other cities in the empire. In the baroque era the look of today's city was shaped. The cathedral was rebuilt in the baroque style. Most of the architects came from Italy. 1622 a university was founded. Due to the fact that it was a catholic state Protestants had a severe standing in Salzburg. Yet 1731 Protestants, who came not back to the catholic belief had do leave Salzburg within eight days.

In the early 19th century Napoleon Bonaparte promoted the Duchy of Salzburg, than later was a part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Then, Salzburg was annexed by Austria, returned to Bavarian and divided between Bavaria and Austria. 1918 Salzburg became a federal state of the new Republic of Austria. In 1938 Germany annexed Austria and Salzburg was a part of Germany. In 1945, when Austria was independent from Germany, Salzburg became a federal state again.

Urban districts

Salzburger Stadtteile
Map of Salzburgs districts

Urban districts (Stadtteile):

  • Aigen
  • Altstadt
  • Elisabeth-Vorstadt
  • Gneis
  • Gneis-Süd
  • Gnigl
  • Itzling
  • Itzling-Nord
  • Kasern
  • Langwied
  • Lehen
  • Leopoldskron-Moos
  • Liefering
  • Maxglan
  • Maxglan-West
  • Morzg
  • Mülln
  • Neustadt
  • Nonntal
  • Parsch
  • Riedenburg
  • Salzburg-Süd
  • Taxham
  • Schallmoos

Mayors of the city since Salzburg became part of Austria

1816 - 1875

1875 - 1919

1919 bis 1945

  • Josef Preis 1919 - 1927
  • Max Ott 1927 - 1935
  • Richard Hildmann 1935 - 1938
  • Anton Giger, 1938 - 1945 - „Oberbürgermeister der Gauhauptstadt Salzburg“ during Nazi occupation

1945 bis 1999

Mayor elected directly by the people from 1999 onwards

  • Heinz Schaden since 1999


Salzburg is a World Heritage. There are some places of interes like:

  • Altstadt (Old City) with
    • Franziskaner church
    • Cathedral
    • Getreidegasse
    • Residenz(here the archbishop had his residence)
    • Residenzplatz with Residenzfountain
    • Kollegienkirche (University church)
    • Festspielhaus
    • Pferdeschwemme
    • St. Peters cemetery
    • Fortress Hohensalzburg
  • Other places of interest
    • Mirabell Palace with Mirabell Garden
    • Augustiner Bräustübl Mülln (beer garden of the Augustiner brewery)
    • Hellbrunn palace

Famous citizens

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, composer
  • Gerhard Amanshauser, writer
  • Gerd Bacher, journalist
  • Christian Doppler, mathematician and physicist
  • Herbert von Karajan, conductor
  • Angelika Kirchschlager, singer
  • Genia Kühmeier, singer
  • Hans Makart, painter
  • Georg Trakl, lyric poet
  • Irma von Troll-Borostyáni, early feminist

Sister cities

Related pages




City Tours and Tour operators in Salzburg

Images for kids

Salzburg Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.