Warren County, New Jersey facts for kids
|Warren County, New Jersey|
Location in the state of New Jersey
New Jersey's location in the U.S.
|Founded||November 20, 1824|
|Largest City||Phillipsburg (population)
Hardwick Township (area)
362.86 sq mi (940 km²)
356.92 sq mi (924 km²)
5.94 sq mi (15 km²), 1.64%
106,617 (2016 est.; 19th largest)
299/sq mi (115.6/km²)
|Named for: Joseph Warren|
Warren County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2016 Census estimate, the county's population was 106,617, making it the 19th-most populous of the state's 21 counties, representing a decrease of 1.9% from the 108,692 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, in turn having increased by 6,255 (+6.1%) from 102,437 counted at the 2000 Census, Its county seat is Belvidere. It is part of the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area and is generally considered the eastern border of the Lehigh Valley. It is considered a part of the New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, and shares its western border with the New York City Metropolitan Area, with its northwestern section bordering The Poconos. The most populous place was Phillipsburg, with 14,950 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hardwick Township, covered 37.92 square miles (98.2 km2), the largest total area of any municipality.
Warren County was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 20, 1824, from portions of Sussex County. At its creation, the county consisted of the townships of Greenwich, Independence, Knowlton, Mansfield, Oxford, and Pahaquarry (now defunct). The county was named for Joseph Warren, an American hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill.
- Geology and geography
- Native Americans
- Images for kids
Geology and geography
According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 362.86 square miles (939.8 km2), including 356.92 square miles (924.4 km2) of land (98.4%) and 5.94 square miles (15.4 km2) of land (1.6%).
Warren County has rolling hills, with the Kittatinny Ridge in the west. Allamuchy Mountain and Jenny Jump Mountain are part of the New York – New Jersey Highlands, also known as the Reading Prong. Around 450 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands collided with proto North America. The chain of islands went over the North American plate, thus the Highlands were created from the island rock and so was the Great Appalachian Valley. The Highlands is Allamuchy Mountains and the Jenny Jump Mountains. Thus, Warren County was born.
Around 400 million years ago a small continent that was long and thin collided with proto North America. This created the Kittatinny Mountains, as the land was compressed from the collision. The quartzite that was lying in a shallow sea over top of the Martinsburg shale, folded and faulted due to pressure and heat. The quartzite lifted, thus the Kittatinny Mountain was born.
The final collision was when the African plate collided with the North American plate. This was the final episode of the building of the Appalachian Mountains. Then the African plate tore away from North America.
Then the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern part of the county from 21,000 to 13,000 BC. This glacier covered the top of Kittatinny Mountain and carved the terrain in the northern part of the county. The terminal moraine runs from north of Belvidere to south of Great Meadows to north of Hackettstown, to north of Budd Lake. Blairstown Township, Hope Township, half of Independence Township, part of White Township, and all of Allamuchy Township was covered by the Glacier. When the glacier melted, a lake was formed at Great Meadows. Slowly the lake drained leaving a large flat area filled with organic material.
The county is drained by three rivers. All three rivers are shallow and narrow. They are fresh water rivers that are excellent for fishing. The Paulins Kill drains the western portion of the county. The river flows from Newton to Blairstown Township, and then through Knowlton Township where it drains into the Delaware River. The Pequest River drains the middle of the county flowing from Andover Township through Allamuchy, then to Independence Township where it turns west and flows through White Township and then empties into the Delaware River at Belvidere. The third river is the Musconetcong. Starting at Lake Musconetcong, the river divides the county from Morris and Hunterdon. This river drains the southern portion of the county and empties into the Delaware River near Warren Glen.
Warren County is located in two valleys of the Great Appalachian Valley. The first is the Kittatinny Valley, which is in the northern part of the county, and the Lehigh Valley, which is in the southern part of the county.
The Lehigh Valley starts at the terminal moraine of the Wisconsin Glacier slightly north of Belvidere. It extends from the Delaware River south to where the Musconetcong River goes into the Delaware River, northeast to the Jenny Jump Mountains and then along Route 80 to the Allamuchy Mountains to the terminal moraine near Hackettstown.
The Kittatinny Valley is north of the terminal moraine; it runs north of Belvidere, to south of Great Meadows, then east to the north of Hackettstown. Towns such as Blairstown, Johnsonburg, Hope and Allamuchy are in the Kittatinny Valley
The highest elevation is 1,600 feet (490 m) above sea level on the Kittatinny Ridge, at two areas just south of Upper Yards Creek Reservoir, west of Blairstown. The lowest point is the confluence of the Delaware and Musconetcong rivers at the county's southern tip, at 160 feet (49 m) of elevation.
The highest elevation on Allamuchy Mountain is 1,240 feet (380 m) on the ridge northeast of Allamuchy. On Jenny Jump Mountain the highest point is 1,134 feet (346 m) east of the Shiloh area or south of Interstate 80. Sunfish Pond has an elevation of 1,379 feet (420 m) and upper Yards Creek Reservoir is at 1,555 feet (474 m).
Climate and weather
|Weather chart for Belvidere, New Jersey|
|temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches
source: The Weather Channel
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Belvidere have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 85 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of −17 °F (−27 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 101 °F (38 °C) was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.77 inches (70 mm) in February to 4.65 inches (118 mm) in July.
- Sussex County, New Jersey – northeast
- Morris County, New Jersey – east
- Bucks County, Pennsylvania – south
- Hunterdon County, New Jersey – south
- Northampton County, Pennsylvania – west
- Monroe County, Pennsylvania – northwest
National protected areas
- Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (part)
- Middle Delaware National Scenic River (part)
After the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B.C., the area slowly warmed, but was still cold and wet. Cold water was everywhere due to glacial melt. Huge lakes and swamps were everywhere. There was a huge lake at Great Meadows. At first the area was Tundra, in which lichens and mosses grew. Later, grass lands filled in the landscape. As climate warmed over a thousand years, Taiga/Boreal Forests grew. The water drained slowly from the glacier and so grasslands grew first. Big game such as mastodons, mammoths, and caribou came into the area, as well as other game such as rabbits and fox. These animals ate the lichens, moss and grasses that grew. This is when Paleo Indians moved into the area. The area was rich in wildlife. Paleo Indians lived in small groups and traveled in search of game and plants to eat. They were hunter-gathers.They lived near water and moved after game became scarce in the area. They ate various berries and plants as well as game hunted. They also ate fresh water clams and fish that migrated north in the Delaware River to spawn such as shad and sturgeon. Fish were caught by spears or fish traps made of stones and sticks. The shallow riffles in rivers were used to catch fish.
They made spear points of jasper, quartz, shale, or black chert. They traveled to quarries in search of stones for spear points or they traded with other small groups for these points. They also used atlatls, which is a stick that throws a dart with a lighter stone point than a spear. Later coniferous forests grew as the area warmed. Paleo-Indian camp sites are many feet below the present ground surface, making them difficult to locate.
Mastodons roamed the area during the Paleo Indian era. A mastodon were found at Highland Lakes date 8940 B.C. + or - 200 years in 1954. At in Swartswoods Lake, and in Liberty Township, Warren County dated 9045 B.C.+ or - 750 years. Another was found in Hampton Township in 1962 in a pond. One was found in Stokes State Forest in a glacial bed in 1939. Two were found in Orange County, New York dated 7910 B.C.+ or - 225 years and the other at 8050 B.C. + or -160 years. Mastodons inhabited the open spruce forests.
The mega fauna of the tundra moved north such as the caribou, as climate warmed or became extinct. Some Paleo Indians moved north with the caribou.
There are four Paleo Indians sites. One is in Warren County and the other three are near. The Plenge site located on the north side of the Musconetcong River in Franklin Township, Warren County. This site is estimated at 10,000 B.C. The Zierdt site is located near the Delaware River in Montaque Township. The next is the Dutchess Cave in Orange County, New York, just east of the Wallkill River. This site is dated at 10,580 B.C. + or - 370 years. Caribou bones and a spear point was located at this site. The last is the Shawnee site located north of the Delaware Water Gap on the west side of the river, where Broadhead Creek enters the Delaware in Pennsylvania. This site is dated from charcoal found at 8640 B.C. + or - 300 years.
As climate warmed further, hemlock began to grow followed by deciduous trees around 8000 B.C. such as oaks, and maples. This was the beginning of the Archaic period, in which projectile points were no longer fluted but indented at the bottom of the stone point. Oak nuts and other seeds were eaten at this time. Harry's Farm site in Paraquarry Township is an Archaic hunters camp with charcoal dating at 5430 B.C. + or - 120 years. Also the Plenge site was an Archaic camp in Franklin Township.
As climate warmed further around 3,000 B.C., beech, walnut, hickories, chestnut, and butternut grew. These trees produced nuts for feeding Archaic hunters; Archaic Indian populations grew more rapidly. As populations grew, large families became small tribes in various areas. During this time the 12 prominent hardwood tree species of Eastern North America existed in Warren County, which were Ash, Beech, Birch, Cherry, Chestnut, Elm, Hickory, Maple, Oak, Sweet Gum, Sycamore, and Walnut. The Archaic period lasted from 8000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.
Around 1000 B.C. clay pottery was beginning to be used. This was the beginning of the Woodland Period. With this advancement in technology, Native people could cook food better as well as store food.
Technological innovations occurred around the year 500 A. D. with the invention of the bow and arrow; as projectile points became smaller to fit onto an arrow shaft. Now Native Americans could procure more food as they could be further away from game to kill it. The adlatls were still being used. This allowed Native Americans at this time to procure more food, as game could be taken at a longer distance. Food such as nuts could be stored in clay pots or the pots were used for cooking
Various cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the area at that time.
Agriculture also started around that time, with the cultivation of corn, beans, and squash. Seeds were probably procured from traveling groups or tribes. Settlements of family groups became more stable, as they could store food in pottery, as well as procure more game with the bow and arrow. Agriculture contributed to the rise of population density in areas where crops could be grown. The Lenape would tend their oval gardens during the spring and summer months. They fished with nets or by hand in the shallow rivers. The Lenape trapped game with deadfalls and snares.
Problems developed in the early 17th century when the Little Ice Age came to North America. With late frost in May and June and early frosts in August or September, made the growing of crops difficult. Cold weather also made big and small game more difficult to find. as game would go into semi hibernation. Also nut crops from oak, hickory, beech, walnut, butternut, and chestnut, failed at times; making the supply of these nuts scarce. Rivers froze early, and water became cold fast; so fishing became impossible. The Native populations had declined after epidemics of infectious diseases, for which they had no acquired immunity. Native American populations were separated from Europe for thousands of years and had no immunity to these diseases that the Europeans brought with them. Many Native American populations were weakened from starvation due to the Little Ice Age, which was coldest during the 17th century. Their important corn, bean and squash crops failed due to spring frosts and early frosts in autumn. As the Native American population declined, more land was available for European settlement. All these factors made the Native American populations decline dramatically.
Europeans purchased land known as land patents so Native Americans moved west to Ohio or Canada.
The Dutch settled the Hudson River Valley and claimed all lands west of the Hudson River in the early 17th century. They claimed all land between the 40th and 45th latitude. They traded with the Native Americans for furs, such as beaver, otter, muskrat, and deer. The Dutch built a fort at the southern end of Manhattan Island known as Fort Amsterdam. This was their main fort in North America. They also had other forts along the Hudson River up to Albany, New York. The English took over the Fort Amsterdam in August 1664 and gain control of the land the Dutch claimed. There was a ten-year war that followed with England and the Netherlands, but the English won.
Since the English owned the Province of New Jersey, it was divided into two parts; East and West Jersey. The Quintipartite Deed of 1674 to 1702; divided the province of Jersey with two surveys. These surveys were the Keith Line and the other survey was the Coxe-Barclay line which created the border of eastern Sussex county. The Coxe-Barclay line which was drawn in the late 1600s, established West Jersey in what is now Sussex County from the headwaters of the Pequannock River with a line going northeast to the line of the Province of New Jersey and New York. This line was between 41 degrees 40 minutes north to 41 degrees north. The western border was the Delaware River.
At this time the area was part of Burlington County in 1694. The area which was to be Warren County was then Hunterdon County in 1714. In 1739, the area of Warren County was included in Morris County. Later Sussex County separated from Morris County but the area of which was to be Warren County was included in Sussex County in 1753.
Relations between the British and Native Americans improved for a while but gradually declined. This led to the French and Indian War of 1754, which fortified homes or small forts were built from Phillipsburg to Port Jervis, N.Y. along or near the Delaware River. The mountains of Warren County was the frontier of the war. Hostilities between the British and the French began to spill over from the European continent into the colonies in the New World. This was due to land claims by the English and French in western Pennsylvania and the Ohio River Valley area. After the battle of Jumonville Glen in southwestern Pennsylvania in May 1754, French colonists in North America armed several Native American tribes. The Native Americans sided with the French due to poor treatment by the British; unfair land purchases, and the Walking Purchase in eastern Pennsylvania of September 1737.
During the French and Indian War (as the Seven Years' War's hostilities in North America were called), Sussex County was often raided by bands of Native Americans, among them members of the Lenape, Shawnee, and Iroquois who fought against white settlers. In 1756, a small band of Lenape raided the homes of local militia commanders, killing several members of the Swartout family and kidnapping other settlers during the Hunt-Swartout Raid. In response to these aggressions, Royal Governor Jonathan Belcher approved a plan for 8 forts to be constructed along the Delaware River to defend the New Jersey frontier from such incursions, and authorized the New Jersey Frontier Guard to man them. Several of these forts were little more than blockhouses, others were personal homes that were fortified. These forts went from Phillipsburg northward to Belvidere in Warren County. Then north of Blairstown to Van Campen's Inn. Then north along the eastern side of the Delaware River to Port Jervis, New York. The first fort was called Fort Reading. This fort was near the Pequest River on the south side of the river near the Belvidere-Riverton Bridge. This fort was built in 1757. The second fort was Ellison's Fort built of stone in Knowlton Township. This fort is located at the Delaware River Family Campground. The trail went through the Kittatinny Mountains north of Blairstown to Colonel Isaac Van Campen's Inn 1742, about 18 miles northeast of Fort Reading. This fort is located in Walpack Township. Fort John also called Headquarters Fort was up a hill near Van Campens Fort. The next fortification was Fort Walpack build six miles north of Van Campens Fort in the bow of Walpack Bend around 1756. This is in Walpack Township. About six miles north of Walpack Fort is Fort Nominack 1756, which is located just north of Jager Road and Old Mine Road in Sandyston Township. The next fort was Fort Shipeconk 1757 located 4 miles north of the previous fort. A fortified house owned by Captain Abraham Shimer was very close to Fort Shipeconk. Further north the next fortified house was maintained west of Port Jervis, New York and it was called Fort Cole. After Fort Cole there was Fort Gardner which was located north of Port Jervis below the Great Mountain. After the war ended in 1763, there was very few Native Americans left in Warren county.
In the present-day Phillipsburg area, European settlement occurred in the late 17th century. Surveyors from Philadelphia went north along the Delaware River to survey land. Settlers from Philadelphia moved north into present-day Warren County after colonists purchased land from the Native Americans. As the Native American population declined, more land was available for European settlement.
By the late 1700s/early 1800s, Phillipsburg, Hackettstown, Belvidere, and Washington emerged as small settlements and served as the cornerstone communities in lower Sussex County. In 1824, Warren County was established and Belvidere was named as its county seat.
Hunting and fishing
Warren County has many areas for hunting and fishing. The five major rivers or creeks for fishing in Warren County are the Paulinskill, the Pequest, the Musconetcong, Pohatcong Creek, and the Delaware River and are the premier fishing streams of the county. They are stocked with trout and other types of fish. Merrill Creek Reservoir, located in Harmony Township, is also stocked with fish and has game in the surrounding woods. Pohatcong Creek is also popular for trout fishing in the spring.
The New Jersey Department of Wildlife houses its Pequest Fish Hatchery, which produces trout and other fish, in Warren County about five miles northeast of Oxford, along U.S. Route 46. Thousands of trout are raised in this hatchery and also serves as an educational center for other outdoor activity. There are a couple notable Wildlife Management areas for hunting, White Lake, Oxford Lake, and the Pequest River W.M.A.
The Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area is also for hunting and fishing.
|Historical sources: 1790-1990
1970-2010 2000 2010 2000-2010
As of the census of 2010, there were 108,692 people, 41,480 households, and 28,870 families residing in the county. The population density was 304.5 per square mile (117.6/km2). There were 44,925 housing units at an average density of 125.9 per square mile (48.6/km2)*. The racial makeup of the county was 90.29% (98,137) White, 3.51% (3,818) Black or African American, 0.14% (155) Native American, 2.46% (2,673) Asian, 0.03% (30) Pacific Islander, 1.81% (1,964) from other races, and 1.76% (1,915) from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.05% (7,659) of the population.
There were 41,480 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% were non-families. 25% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.1.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 91.5 males.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 102,437 people, 38,660 households, and 27,487 families residing in the county. The population density was 286 people per square mile (111/km²). There were 41,157 housing units at an average density of 115 per square mile (44/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.54% White, 1.87% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.01% from other races, and 1.24% from two or more races. 3.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 24.1% were of German, 19.7% Irish, 18.7% Italian, 9.8% English, 8.9% Polish and 4.4% American ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 38,660 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.90% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.12.
In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, and 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $56,100, and the median income for a family was $66,223. Males had a median income of $47,331 versus $31,790 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,728. About 3.6% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.9% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.
Municipalities in Warren County, with Census-designated places (CDPs) and other communities listed, are:
(with map key)
|Allamuchy Township (17)||township||4,323||2,096||20.76||0.31||20.45||211.3||102.5||Allamuchy CDP (78)
Panther Valley CDP (3,327)
|Blairstown Township (21)||township||5,967||2,272||31.70||0.89||30.82||193.6||73.7||Blairstown CDP (515)
|Franklin Township (10)||township||3,176||1,219||24.13||0.09||24.04||132.1||50.7||Asbury CDP (273)
Broadway CDP (244)
New Village CDP (421)
|Frelinghuysen Township (18)||township||2,230||826||23.57||0.24||23.32||95.6||35.4||Johnsonburg CDP (101)
Marksboro CDP (82)
|Greenwich Township (7)||township||5,712||1,870||10.54||0.01||10.53||542.5||177.6||Greenwich CDP (2,755)
Stewartsville CDP (349)
Upper Stewartsville CDP (212)
|Hardwick Township (22)||township||1,696||619||37.92||1.32||36.60||46.3||16.9|
|Harmony Township (9)||township||2,667||1,109||24.08||0.38||23.70||112.5||46.8||Brainards CDP (202)
Harmony CDP (441)
Hutchinson CDP (135)
|Hope Township (19)||township||1,952||809||18.84||0.22||18.62||104.8||43.4||Hope CDP (195)
Mount Hermon CDP (141)
Silver Lake CDP (368)
|Independence Township (16)||township||5,662||2,325||19.89||0.15||19.74||286.8||117.8||Great Meadows CDP (303)
Vienna CDP (981)
|Knowlton Township (20)||township||3,055||1,212||25.33||0.58||24.75||123.4||49.0||Columbia CDP (229)
Delaware CDP (150)
Hainesburg CDP (91)
|Liberty Township (14)||township||2,942||1,151||11.87||0.26||11.60||253.6||99.2||Mountain Lake CDP (575)
|Lopatcong Township (8)||township||8,014||3,420||7.16||0.06||7.10||1,129.0||481.8||Delaware Park CDP (700)
Lopatcong Overlook CDP (734)
|Mansfield Township (15)||township||7,725||3,316||29.93||0.11||29.82||259.1||111.2||Anderson CDP (342)
Beattystown CDP (4,554)
Port Murray CDP (129)
|Oxford Township (12)||township||2,514||1,033||5.89||0.10||5.79||434.5||178.5||Oxford CDP (1,090)
|Pohatcong Township (6)||township||3,339||1,420||13.71||0.36||13.36||250.0||106.3||Carpentersville
Finesville CDP (175)
Upper Pohatcong CDP (1,781)
|Washington Borough (2)||borough||6,461||2,897||1.95||0.00||1.94||3,326.8||1,491.7|
|Washington Township (11)||township||6,651||2,493||17.75||0.09||17.66||376.6||141.1||Brass Castle CDP (1,555)
Port Colden CDP (122)
|White Township (13)||township||4,882||2,304||27.63||0.48||27.15||179.8||84.9||Bridgeville CDP (106)
Brookfield CDP (675)
Buttzville CDP (146)
Foul Rift (ghost town)
Roads and highways
As of 2010[update], the county had a total of 1,055.07 miles (1,697.97 km) of roadways, of which 690.53 miles (1,111.30 km) were maintained by the local municipality, 256.15 miles (412.23 km) by Warren County and 103.20 miles (166.08 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 5.19 miles (8.35 km) by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.
The county has a few notable state and federal roads. The chief state routes are Route 31,a north-south road that runs from Buttzville in White Township to Trenton, and Route 57 that runs between Lopatcong Township to Hackettstown. Route 94 in the northern part runs through Blairstown into New York via Newton and the rest of Sussex County. Route 173 runs near Bloomsbury into Hunterdon County, terminating at Clinton/Annandale, and Route 182 serves as one of the commercial areas of Hackettstown. The US Routes are U.S. Route 22 in the Phillipsburg area and U.S. Route 46 runs from Columbia to Hackettstown in the northern section. The two interstates are the Phillipsburg-Newark Expressway (Interstate 78), and the Bergen-Passaic Expressway (Interstate 80).
Rail and Bus transportation
Warren County has a single NJ Transit train stop, located at the Hackettstown station on the Montclair-Boonton Line.
The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line (formerly the mainline of the Lehigh Valley Railroad), runs through the southern Warren County on its way to Phillipsburg, New Jersey.
Warren County also contracts with Easton Coach to provide demand-responsive service, as well as limited fixed-route service. New Jersey Transit also operates the #890 & #891 buses in the Philipsburg area.
Images for kids
Warren County, New Jersey Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.