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East Riding of Yorkshire
County
East Riding Of Yorkshire.svg
Flag
Motto: Tradition and progress
East Riding of Yorkshire within England
East Riding of Yorkshire in England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country England
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Established Historic
Ceremonial county
Area 2,479 km2 (957 sq mi)
 • Ranked 23rd of 48
Population (2005 est.) 576,500
 • Ranked 37th of 48
Density 232/km2 (600/sq mi)
Ethnicity Figures for East Riding of Yorkshire UA:
93.0% White, British
2.0% White, other
1.9% S. Asian
0.9% Mixed
0.9% White, Irish
0.6% Black
Unitary authority
Council Two unitary authorities
Blazon: Barry vert and Or on a chevron engrailed plain cotised gules three roses argent barbed and seeded proper. crest: issuing from a mural crown argent an eagle displayed gules armed and langued azure supporting with the dexter talons a sword hilt upwards and with the sinister talons a crozier in saltire Or; mantled gules doubled argent. Supporters: on the dexter a lion azure guardant armed and langued gules gorged with a wreath of barley supporting between the forelegs a trident Or; on the sinister a demi-horse argent langued gules maned Or the feet webbed vert conjoined to the lower half of a Hippocampus vert supporting between the forelegs set upon a staff a cross fleury gules.

East Riding of Yorkshire Council
http://www.eastriding.gov.uk/
_______
Hull-City-Council-(colour).png
Hull City Council
http://www.hullcc.gov.uk
Executive Conservative
Admin HQ Beverley
Area 2,408 km2 (930 sq mi)
 • Ranked 5th of 326
 • Ranked of 326
Density [convert: needs a number]
ISO 3166-2 GB-ERY
ONS code 00FB
GSS code E06000011
NUTS UKE11/12
Outline map of the East Riding of Yorkshire with the borders of the City of Kingston upon Hull marked
Districts of East Riding of Yorkshire
Districts
  1. East Riding of Yorkshire (Unitary)
  2. City of Kingston upon Hull (Unitary)
Members of Parliament
Time zone GMT (UTC)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)

The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a ceremonial county of England. It is located in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber. The East Riding of Yorkshire may also refer to a local government district with unitary authority status, which does not include the city of Kingston upon Hull, the largest settlement in the ceremonial county, which is a separate unitary authority. The modern East Riding of Yorkshire (both ceremonial county and unitary authority), was formed in 1996 from the northern part of the non-metropolitan county of Humberside.

The East Riding of Yorkshire may also refer to the historic riding of Yorkshire (one of three ridings alongside the North Riding and West Riding), which constituted a ceremonial and administrative county until 1974. The historic riding covered a larger area than the modern county: it included some areas now in North Yorkshire, but did not include the area of Goole, which was then in the West Riding.

At the 2011 Census the Unitary Authority population was 334,179.

The landscape consists of a crescent of low chalk hills, the Yorkshire Wolds, surrounded by the low-lying fertile plains of Holderness and the Vale of York. The Humber Estuary and North Sea mark its southern and eastern limits. Archaeological investigations have revealed artefacts and structures from all historical periods since the last ice age. There are few large settlements and no industrial centres. The area is administered from the ancient market and ecclesiastical town of Beverley. Christianity is the religion with the largest following in the area and there is a higher than average percentage of retired people in residence.

The economy is mainly based on agriculture and this, along with tourism, has contributed to the rural and seaside character of the Riding. These aspects are also reflected in the places of interest to visitors and major landmarks, which include historic buildings, nature reserves and the Yorkshire Wolds Way long-distance footpath. The open and maritime aspects and lack of major urban developments have also led to the county being allocated relatively high targets for the generation of energy from renewable sources.

Major sporting and entertainment venues are concentrated in Kingston upon Hull, while the seaside and market towns support semi-professional and amateur sports clubs and provide seasonal entertainment for visitors. Bishop Burton is the site of an agricultural college, and Hull provides the region's only university. On the southern border, close to Hull, the Humber Bridge spans the Humber Estuary to enable the A15 to link Hessle with Barton-upon-Humber in North Lincolnshire.

History

When the last glacial period ended, the hunter gatherers of the Palaeolithic period followed the animal herds across the land between continental Europe and Britain. Then, as conditions continued to improve and vegetation became more able to support a greater diversity of animals, the annual range of seasonal movement by Mesolithic communities decreased, and people became more fixed to particular localities. Until about 6,000 BC, Mesolithic people appear to have exploited their environment as they found it. As communities came to rely on a smaller territorial range and as population levels increased, attempts began to be made to modify or control the natural world. In the Great Wold Valley, pollen samples of Mesolithic date indicate that the forest cover in the area was being disturbed and altered by man, and that open grasslands were being created. The Yorkshire Wolds became a major focus for human settlement during the Neolithic period as they had a wide range of natural resources. The oldest monuments found on the Wolds are the Neolithic long barrows and round barrows. Two earthen long barrows in the region are found at Fordon, on Willerby Wold, and at Kilham, both of which have radiocarbon dates of around 3700 BC.

From around 2000 to 800 BC, the people of the Bronze Age built the 1,400 Bronze Age round barrows that are known to exist on the Yorkshire Wolds. These are found both in isolation and grouped together to form cemeteries. Many of these sites can still be seen as prominent features in the present-day landscape. By the later Bronze Age, an open, cleared, landscape predominated on the Wolds. It was used for grazing and also for arable cultivation. The wetlands on either side of the Wolds in the River Hull valley, Holderness and the Vale of York were also being used for animal rearing at this time. In the Iron Age there were further cultural changes in the area. There emerged a distinctive local tradition known as the Arras Culture, named after a site at Arras, near Market Weighton. There are similarities between the chariot burials of the Arras Culture and groups of La Tene burials in northern Europe, where the burial of carts was also practised. The area became the kingdom of the tribe known as the Parisi.

After invading Britain in 43 AD the Romans crossed the Humber Estuary in 71 AD to invade the Northumbrian territory of the Parisi tribe. From their bridgehead at Petuaria they travelled northwards and built roads along the Wolds to Derventio, present day Malton, and then westwards to the River Ouse where they built the fort of Eboracum. There is evidence of extensive use of the light soils of the Wolds for grain farming in the Roman era. Several Roman villas which were the centres of large agricultural estates have been identified around Langton and Rudston. In the low-lying lands on either side of the Wolds there was an increase in the number of settlements between 500 BC and 500 AD as the land became drier and more accessible due to a fall in sea level. The lower-lying land was used for stock breeding. During the last years of Roman occupation Anglo-Saxon raiders were troubling the area and, by the second half of the 5th century, settlement by Anglian invaders was taking place in east Yorkshire. Village names containing the elements -ing, -ingham or -ham are Anglian settlement names. As Christianity became established in the area from the 7th century onwards, several cemeteries like the one at Garton on the Wolds show evidence of the abandonment of pagan burial practices. In 867 AD the Great Danish Army captured the Anglian town of York, and the remnants of the army settled in Yorkshire from 876 AD when their leader Halfdan shared out the land among them. Scandinavian settlements have names including the elements -by and -thorpe. Scandinavian rule in the area came to an end in 954 AD with the death of their ruler Eric Bloodaxe.

After the Norman Conquest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066 AD, the land in the East Riding was granted to followers of the new Norman king and ecclesiastical institutions. When some of the northern earls rebelled, William retaliated with the Harrying of the North which laid waste many East Riding villages. The land was then distributed among powerful barons, such as the Count of Aumale in Holderness and the Percy family in the Wolds and the Vale of York. These lay lords and ecclesiastical institutions, including the monasteries, continued to improve and drain their holdings throughout the Middle Ages to maximise the rents they could charge for them.

In the mid-16th century Henry VIII of England dissolved the monasteries, resulting in the large areas of land owned by Meaux Abbey, Bridlington Priory and other monastic holdings being confiscated. The Crown subsequently sold these large tracts of land into private ownership. Along with the land already belonging to lay owners, they formed some of the vast estate holdings which continued to exist in the Riding until the 20th century.

The 18th and 19th centuries saw first the expansion of canals and then the construction of rail links. The River Derwent was canalised as far upstream as Malton and was linked to Pocklington by the cutting of the Pocklington Canal. Other canals were cut to join the towns of Beverley and Driffield to the River Hull, which was also improved to aid navigation. The Market Weighton Canal connected the town directly to the Humber Estuary. An early rail link was constructed between Filey and Bridlington in 1847 and the Malton to Driffield railway was the first to cross the Wolds in 1853. These routes primarily served the agricultural community in helping to get their products to the expanding industrial markets in the West Riding of Yorkshire and to the port of Hull for export. The rail links served also to transport holidaymakers to the expanding coastal resorts of Bridlington, Hornsea and Withernsea. The canals and canalisation of some of the rivers helped to aid drainage in such of the low-lying ill-drained areas that then still existed. The landscape in the East Riding had changed little since the enclosure of the open fields in the 18th and 19th centuries, except for the removal of some hedgerows to allow for the use of large agricultural machinery in the 20th century.

Geography

Location

As a ceremonial county, the East Riding of Yorkshire borders North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, and includes the city of Kingston upon Hull, which is a separate unitary authority. As a district the East Riding borders North East Lincolnshire, beyond the Humber estuary; North Lincolnshire, beyond the Humber and on land; Hull, Doncaster, Selby, York, Ryedale and Scarborough.

Geology

East Yorkshire Geology
Solid geology of the East Riding

Geologically the East Riding district is split into three parts. The western part is the eastern section of the Vale of York with the southern extension into the Humberhead Levels. In this area there is a belt of sandstones overlain by glacial and lake deposits formed at the close of the last ice age. The middle part is the Yorkshire Wolds, a chalk formation which extends from the Humber at North Ferriby to the coast at Flamborough Head, a chalk headland. The south-east of the district is the low-lying coastal plain of Holderness, which faces east to the North Sea, and to the south drains into the Humber estuary. South of Flamborough Head is Bridlington, which features several beaches, and at the far south-east of the district is the Spurn peninsula.

Before the last ice age the eastern coastline of the area was located along the eastern foot of the Yorkshire Wolds where remnants of beaches have been discovered. The North Sea ice sheet deposited huge amounts of boulder clay as it retreated and this subsequently formed a wet and swampy area which became the plain of Holderness. Another ice sheet in the Vale of York retreated at the same time leaving thick glacial deposits and two prominent moraines to the west of the Wolds. These Vale of York deposits also formed wetlands. The Wolds themselves were largely ice-free, well drained, chalk uplands. Gradually the tundra conditions that had existed as the ice retreated gave way to vegetation that could support grazing fauna. Because a lot of water was still locked in the northern ice sheets, sea level was much lower than in the present day and an area of land stretched eastwards to the low countries.

Landscape

FlamboroughHeadCliffs
The chalk cliffs at Flamborough Head

The Wolds area takes the form of an elevated, gently rolling plateau, cut by numerous deep, steep-sided, flat-bottomed valleys of glacial origin. The chalk formation of the hills provides exceptionally good drainage, with the result that most of these valleys are dry. Surface water is quite scarce throughout the Wolds. At Flamborough Head the Wolds rise up to form high chalk cliffs, where there are water-worn caves and stacks along the shore. Flamborough Headland is designated a Heritage Coast. Coastal erosion around Flamborough Head has led to visitors being warned by the Humber Coastguard to be very careful on coastal paths.

The Holderness landscape is dominated by deposits of till, boulder clays and glacial lake clays. These were deposited during the Devensian glaciation. The glacial deposits form a more or less continuous lowland plain which has some peat filled depressions (known locally as meres) which mark the presence of former lake beds. There are other glacial landscape features such as drumlin mounds, ridges and kettle holes scattered throughout the area. The well drained glacial deposits provide fertile soils that can support intensive arable cultivation. Fields are generally large and bounded by drainage ditches. There is very little woodland in the area and this leads to a landscape that is essentially rural but very flat and exposed.

Skidby Working Windmill 1
Skidby Windmill is surrounded by fertile agricultural land typical of the East Riding.

The Holderness coastline suffers the highest rate of coastal erosion in Europe: 2 metres a year on average or 2 million tonnes of material a year. Some of this is transported by longshore drift with about 3% of material being deposited at Spurn Head spit, to the south. The coastline has retreated noticeably in the last 2,000 years, with many former settlements now flooded, particularly Ravenser Odd and Ravenspurn, which was a major port until its destruction in the 14th century. Erosion is an ongoing concern in the area. The East Riding of Yorkshire Council has been carrying out cliff erosion defences between Sewerby and Kilnsea since 1951. The Holderness area drains mostly into the Humber and the eponymous River Hull drains the area north of Hull.

The western part of the district in the Vale of York borders on and is drained by the River Derwent. The landscape is generally low-lying and flat although minor ridges and glacial moraines provide some variations in topography. Where there are dry sandy soils there are remnants of historic heathlands and ancient semi-natural woodlands. Arable fields dominate the land cover of the area and grasslands are infrequent. There are very few flood meadows left, although some significant areas remain on the lower reaches of the River Derwent.

Climate

The East Riding generally has cool summers and relatively mild winters. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. The latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather, particularly in winter. Between depressions there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter, anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions which can lead to drought, particularly on the Wolds. For its latitude this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a daily and seasonal basis. The temperature is usually lower at night, and January is the coldest time of the year. The two dominant influences on the climate of the area are the shelter against the worst of the moist westerly winds provided by the Pennines and the proximity of the North Sea.

Climate data for High Mowthorpe:
Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall recorded between 1971 and 2000 by the Met Office.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.1
(41.2)
5.4
(41.7)
7.8
(46)
10.0
(50)
13.4
(56.1)
16.4
(61.5)
19.2
(66.6)
19.4
(66.9)
16.2
(61.2)
12.1
(53.8)
8.0
(46.4)
6.0
(42.8)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.5
(32.9)
1.8
(35.2)
3.1
(37.6)
5.6
(42.1)
8.2
(46.8)
10.5
(50.9)
10.6
(51.1)
9.0
(48.2)
6.4
(43.5)
3.1
(37.6)
1.3
(34.3)
5.1
(41.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 68.7
(2.705)
48.1
(1.894)
59.2
(2.331)
54.8
(2.157)
52.8
(2.079)
62.1
(2.445)
53.4
(2.102)
56.9
(2.24)
61.4
(2.417)
68.2
(2.685)
68.0
(2.677)
75.8
(2.984)
729.4
(28.717)
Source: Met Office

The High Mowthorpe weather station is in the East Riding on the Yorkshire Wolds, but areas in Holderness which are lower and nearer to the sea have generally milder weather.

Demographics

Religion in the East Riding 2001
UK Census 2001 E Riding Yorkshire and
the Humber
England
Christian 79.67% 73.07% 71.74%
No religion 11.90% 14.09% 14.59%
Muslim 0.27% 3.81% 3.1%
Buddhist 0.13% 0.14% 0.28%
Hindu 0.18% 0.32% 1.11%
Jewish 0.13% 0.23% 0.52%
Sikh 0.06% 0.38% 0.67%
Other religions 0.16% 0.19% 0.29%
Religion not stated 7.50% 7.77% 7.69%

Until 1 April 2009, the East Riding was the largest district and the largest unitary authority in England by area and the second largest non-metropolitan district in England by population. Following the 2009 structural changes to local government in England it fell to fifth place by area and sixth place by population.

The East Riding of Yorkshire covers 240,768 hectares (930 sq mi) and has a population of 335,049 (2008 Office for National Statistics mid-year estimates), a density of 1.4 people per hectare. The most populous parishes in the main 2001 census were Bridlington (34,000), Goole (17,000), Beverley (17,000), Cottingham (17,000, part of the Hull urban area), Hessle (15,000, by Hull), Driffield (11,000), Anlaby with Anlaby Common (10,000, by Hull), Hornsea (8,000) and Willerby (8,000, by Hull), Pocklington (8,000) and Elloughton-cum-Brough (7,000). Half the district's population reside in these 11 parishes, with the other half living in the other 160 parishes. In comparison, Hull's population according to the same census was 243,589. The population density of the district was around 135 people per square km, which made it the least densely populated unitary authority after the Isles of Scilly, Rutland and Herefordshire.

The East Riding has a larger than average number of residents aged 40 and above. There is a particularly strong deficit in the number of young adults. There is a higher-than-average level of car ownership. 36.4% of all households do not have a car. Less than 5% of the population travel to work by public transport compared with 15% nationally. The district is one of the lowest non-white populations, with the census reporting 98.8% of the inhabitants being white. Hull itself is also quite monoethnic for a city of its size, with the census reporting 97.7% white.

Areas of the East Riding show significant signs of affluence, including the Parliamentary constituency of Haltemprice and Howden which mainly consists of middle class suburbs, towns and villages. Much of the area is affluent and has one of the highest proportions of owner-occupiers in the country.

Christianity is the religion with the largest following in the area, with 79.67% residents so identifying in the 2001 census. These census figures show no other single religion returned affiliation, as a percentage of population, above the national average for England. At the time of the 2001 UK census the population of the East Riding was 314,113 and its ethnic composition was 96.80% white, compared with the English average of 90.92%. The area has a slightly higher elderly population, of 24.0% in 2008, than the national average.

Towns and villages

See also: List of civil parishes in the East Riding of Yorkshire and Category:Villages in the East Riding of Yorkshire

Excluding Kingston upon Hull there are several areas of settlement in the East Riding, each giving rise to distinctive types of small to medium-sized towns and villages. Cottingham and Willerby are exceptional in that they are suburban villages which are almost contiguous with the Hull urban area. Bridlington is the most populous of the coastal settlements, which also include Flamborough, Hornsea, Withernsea and Aldbrough. Towns and villages on the flat agricultural area of Holderness are Hedon and Roos, and nestling in the Great Wold Valley is Rudston. Along the eastern foot of the Wolds lie Beverley, Bishop Burton, Driffield and Lockington. In the low-lying lands close to the Humber Estuary are Goole, Brough, North Ferriby, Hessle and Kirk Ella. Stamford Bridge, Pocklington, Market Weighton, Holme-on-Spalding-Moor, Howden and South Cave all lie to the north and west of the area, between the River Derwent and the scarp slope of the Wolds.

Hull
Kingston upon Hull

Bridlington
Bridlington
Beverley
Beverley

Ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire
with Kingston upon Hull shown within


      Rivers,       Motorways,       'A' Roads,       Settlements
Largest settlements (by population):

Kingston upon Hull (257,100)
Bridlington (35,369)
Beverley (30,351)
Goole (19,518)
Cottingham (17,164)
Hessle (15,000)
Driffield (13,080)
Elloughton-cum-Brough (10,075)
Anlaby (9,794)
Hornsea (8,432)
Pocklington (8,161)
Willerby (7,940)
Woodmansey (7,109)
Hedon (7,100)
Molescroft (6,820)
Market Weighton (6,429)
Withernsea (6,159)
Kirk Ella (5,576)
Howden (4,142)

Goole
Goole

Cottingham
Cottingham
Hessle
Hessle

Places of interest

See also: List of SSSIs in Humberside and List of Grade I listed buildings in the East Riding of Yorkshire
Beverley Minster - West Front - geograph.org.uk - 811106
Beverley's 11th century minster is one of the county's most visited sites.

There are a wide range of interesting places to visit in the East Riding. These include historic buildings such as Burnby Hall, Burton Agnes Manor House, Burton Agnes Hall, Sewerby Hall, Skipsea Castle and the gun battery of Fort Paull. The religious edifices of the Rudston Monolith, Beverley Minster and Beverley Friary, and Howden Minster can be visited at all seasons.

The sails of Skidby Windmill can be seen providing the power to grind flour on certain days, and natural sites provide interest at Spurn, Bempton Cliffs, Hornsea Mere, Humber Estuary, River Hull, Watton Beck, River Derwent, River Ouse, River Aire, River Trent, and River Don, some of which are owned or run by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust.

The Driffield Navigation, Leven Canal, Market Weighton Canal and Pocklington Canal offer glimpses of tranquillity. Stamford Bridge is the site of the famous battle, and the Yorkshire Wolds Way is a long-distance footpath that takes a winding route through the Yorkshire Wolds to Filey.

Religious sites

See also: List of monastic houses in the East Riding of Yorkshire

Most of the East Riding is in the East Riding Archdeaconry of the Church of England Diocese of York. The archdeaconry includes the Yorkshire Wolds and the City of Hull, with a coastline extending from Scarborough and Bridlington in the north to Spurn Point. The Middlesbrough Roman Catholic diocese covers the East Riding of Yorkshire and North Yorkshire, together with the City of York. Notable religious sites include Beverley Minster and Bridlington Priory along with the historic parish church of St Augustine, Hedon, known as the 'King of Holderness', which is a Grade I listed building. The Sykes Churches Trail is a tour of East Yorkshire churches which were built, rebuilt or restored by the Sykes family of Sledmere House in the 19th century.

Transport

Humber Bridge
The Humber Bridge connects the East Riding with North Lincolnshire.

The East Riding has only a small segment of motorway. Part of the M62 serves to link the Hull area to West Yorkshire and the national motorway network, while the M18 incidentally passes the district border near Goole. Primary roads in the district include the A63, A164, A165, A1034, A166, A1033 and the A1079.

Hull Paragon is a large railway station, served by the Selby Line to the west and the Yorkshire Coast Line to the north. See Railway stations in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

Train operators active in the area are Northern, Virgin Trains East Coast and TransPennine Express. Hull Trains is an 'open access' operator established in 2002 running fast services between London and Hull. Bus services are provided by several operators including FirstGroup, which provides services from the East Riding into York, Goole Town Service and also services from Goole to Doncaster. Stagecoach provides services from the East Riding to Hull and into Lincolnshire, and East Yorkshire Motor Services, historically the dominant area operator, provides a wide variety of bus services throughout the East Riding. Yorkshire Coastliner provides services from Bridlington to Malton, York and Leeds. Holderness Area Rural Transport, a charity, provides a community transport service for North Holderness, taking people to medical appointments in Hull and to the shops.

The Humber Bridge, a road-only bridge, part of the A15, links Hessle, west of Hull, with Barton-upon-Humber in Lincolnshire. West of this the next crossing of the river (the Ouse at this point) are three bridges near Goole: a railway bridge, the M62 bridge and the A614.

The area is served by Humberside Airport located in Lincolnshire.

Sport and leisure

KC Stadium
KCOM Stadium, Hull

Hull is the main centre for national-level sport in the region. Hull City A.F.C. play in the Premier League, the first tier of the English football league system, after promotion from the Championship in the 2016 play-off final win against Sheffield Wednesday. Bridlington Town A.F.C. play in the Northern Counties East League Premier Division. There are two professional rugby league teams based in Hull: Hull F.C. who play in the Super League and Hull Kingston Rovers who play in the Rugby League Championship following relegation from Super League in the 2016 Million Pound Game. Bridlington Rugby Union Football Club plays at Dukes Park in Bridlington. The Hull Stingrays ice hockey team plays in the highest tier of the sport, the Elite League.

Horse racing is catered for at Beverley Racecourse on the Westwood to the west of Beverley. What the organisers claim is the world's oldest horse race, the Kiplingcotes Derby, has been held annually in the East Riding since 1519. There are more than a dozen golf clubs in the Riding including the cliff-top course at Flamborough. The Royal Yorkshire Yacht Club is based at Bridlington, and flying and gliding take place from Pocklington airfield and Eddsfield airfield.

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