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Oceania
Oceania (orthographic projection).svg
An orthographic projection of geopolitical Oceania
Area 8,525,989 km2 (3,291,903 sq mi)
Population 41,570,842 (2018, 6th)
Population density 4.19/km2 (10.9/sq mi)
GDP (nominal) $1.630 trillion (2018, 6th)
GDP per capita $41,037 (2017, 2nd)
Demonym Oceanian
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zones UTC+09 (Papua, Palau) to UTC-6 (Easter Island) (West to East)
Largest cities
UN M49 code 009 – Oceania
001World

Oceania is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and a population of over 41 million. When compared with the continents, the region of Oceania is the smallest in land area and the second smallest in population after Antarctica.

Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial markets of Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, French Polynesia and Hawaii, which rank high in quality of life and human development index, to the much less developed economies such as Papua New Guinea, Indonesian New Guinea, Kiribati, Vanuatu and Tuvalu, while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific islands such as Palau, Fiji and Tonga. The largest and most populous country in Oceania is Australia, and the largest city is Sydney.

The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived more than 60,000 years ago. Oceania was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onward. Portuguese navigators, between 1512 and 1526, reached the Tanimbar Islands, some of the Caroline Islands and west Papua New Guinea. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cook, who later arrived at the highly developed Hawaiian Islands, went to Tahiti and followed the east coast of Australia for the first time. The Pacific front saw major action during the Second World War, mainly between Allied powers the United States and Australia, and Axis power Japan.

The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania. In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and individualistic identity. The rock art of Aboriginal Australians is the longest continuously practised artistic tradition in the world. Puncak Jaya in Papua is the highest peak in Oceania at 4,884 metres. Most Oceanian countries are multi-party representative parliamentary democracies, with tourism being a large source of income for the Pacific Islands nations.

Etymology and semantics

The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun. The word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός (ōkeanós), ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans.

Definitions

See also: List of Oceanian countries by population and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania

Oceania

An orthographic projection of geographic Oceania.
Wider Geographic Oceania.
Little of the South Pacific is apparent at this scale, though Hawaii is just visible near the eastern horizon.

Area 10,975,600 km2 (4,237,700 sq mi)
Population 37.8 million (2010)
Time zones UTC+7 (Western Indonesian Time) to UTC-6 (Easter Island)
Largest Cities

Narrower Geographic Oceania.
Narrower Geographic Oceania.
Island Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia (apart from New Zealand)

Area 183,000 km2 (71,000 sq mi)
Population 5.2 million (2008)
Time zones UTC+9 (Palau) to UTC-6 (Easter Island)
Largest Cities
Aoraki Mount Cook
Aoraki / Mount Cook, located on the South Island of New Zealand
Puncakjaya
Puncak Jaya / Carstensz Pyramid, highest summit in Oceania

As an ecozone, Oceania includes all of Micronesia, Fiji, and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands, Australia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia, constitute the separate Australasian ecozone. In geopolitical terms, however, New Zealand, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia are almost always considered part of Oceania. Australia and Papua New Guinea are usually considered part of Oceania along with the Maluku Islands and Papua in Indonesia. Puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania.

Physiographical

Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean, stretching from the Strait of Malacca to the coast of the Americas. It comprised four regions: Polynesia, Micronesia, Malaysia (now called the Malay Archipelago), and Melanesia. Today, parts of three geological continents are included in the term "Oceania": Eurasia, Australia, and Zealandia, as well the non-continental volcanic islands of the Philippines, Wallacea, and the open Pacific. The area extends to Sumatra in the west, the Bonin Islands in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and the Japanese archipelago, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands of North America.

The islands at the geographic extremes of Oceania are Bonin, a politically integral part of Japan, Hawaii, a state of the United States, and Easter Island, belonging to Chile. There is also a smaller geographic definition that excludes land on the Sunda Plate but includes Indonesian New Guinea on the Australian continent.

Biogeographical

Biogeographically, Oceania is used as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone (Wallacea and Australasia) or the Pacific ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia apart either from New Zealand or from mainland New Guinea).

Ecogeographical

Oceania is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. The Oceania ecozone includes all of Micronesia, Fiji, and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, New Guinea, Melanesia apart from Fiji, and Australia constitute the separate Australasian ecozone. The Malay Archipelago is part of the Indomalaya ecozone. Related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled.

Geopolitical

In the geopolitical conception used by the United Nations, International Olympic Committee, and many atlases, Oceania includes Australia and the nations of the Pacific from Papua New Guinea east, but not the Malay Archipelago or Indonesian New Guinea.

Other definitions

  • The term is often used to denote a continent comprising Australia and proximate islands.
  • New Zealand forms the south-western corner of the Polynesian Triangle. Its indigenous Māori constitute one of the major cultures of Polynesia. It is also, however, considered part of Australasia.
  • The widest definition of Oceania includes the entire region between continental Asia and the Americas, thereby including islands in the Pacific Rim such as the Japanese archipelago, Taiwan, and the Aleutian islands.

History

The history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia. The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania. In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and individualistic identity.

Demographics

The linked map below shows the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the islands of Oceania and neighbouring areas, as a guide to the following table (there are few land boundaries that can be drawn on a map of the Pacific at this scale).

The demographic table below shows the subregions and countries of geopolitical Oceania. The countries and territories in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations. The information shown follows sources in cross-referenced articles; where sources differ, provisos have been clearly indicated. These territories and regions are subject to various additional categorisations, depending on the source and purpose of each description.

Arms Flag Name of region, followed by countries Area
(km2)
Population
(2018)
Population density
(per km2)
Capital ISO 3166-1
Australasia
Shield of arms of Australia.svg Ashmore and Cartier Islands Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Australia) 199
Shield of arms of Australia.svg Australia Australia 7,686,850 24,898,152 3.1 Canberra AU
Shield of arms of Australia.svg Coral Sea Islands Coral Sea Islands (Australia) 10 4 0.4
Arms of New Zealand.svg New Zealand New Zealand 268,680 4,743,131 17.3 Wellington NZ
Insigne Insulae Norfolciae.svg Norfolk Island Norfolk Island (Australia) 35 2,302 65.8 Kingston NF
Australasia (total) 7,955,774 29,643,589 3.6
Melanesia
Arms of Fiji.svg Fiji Fiji 18,270 883,483 49.2 Suva FJ
Emblem of New Caledonia.svg
New Caledonia New Caledonia (France) 19,060 279,993 14.3 Nouméa NC
Indonesia Papua (Indonesia) 319,036 3,486,432 10.9 Jayapura
Indonesia West Papua (Indonesia) 140,375 760,855 5.4 Manokwari
National emblem of Papua New Guinea.svg
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 462,840 8,606,323 17.5 Port Moresby PG
Insigne Insularum Salomonis.svg Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 28,450 652,857 21.1 Honiara SB
Coat of arms of Vanuatu.svg
Vanuatu Vanuatu 12,200 292,680 22.2 Port Vila VU
Melanesia (total) 1,000,231 14,373,536 14.4
Micronesia
Seal of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 702 112,640 149.5 Palikir FM
Coat of arms of Guam.svg Guam Guam (United States) 549 165,768 296.7 Hagåtña GU
Insigne Kiribatum.svg Kiribati Kiribati 811 115,847 141.1 South Tarawa KI
Seal of the Marshall Islands.svg
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 181 58,413 293.2 Majuro MH
Insigne Naurunum.svg Nauru Nauru 21 10,670 540.3 Yaren (de facto) NR
Seal of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands (United States) 477 56,882, 115.4 Saipan MP
Seal of Palau.svg
Palau Palau 458 17,907 46.9 Ngerulmud PW
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg Wake Island Wake Island (United States) 2 150 75 Wake Island UM
Micronesia (total) 3,201 523,317 163.5
Polynesia
Seal of American Samoa.svg
American Samoa American Samoa (United States) 199 55,465 279.4 Pago Pago, Fagatogo AS
Insigne Insularum de Cook.svg Cook Islands Cook Islands (New Zealand) 240 17,518 72.4 Avarua CK
Insigne incognitum.svg Easter Island Easter Island (Chile) 164 5,761 35.1 Hanga Roa CL
Coat of arms of French Polynesia.svg French Polynesia French Polynesia (France) 4,167 277,679 67.2 Papeete PF
Insigne Havaii.svg Hawaii Hawaii (United States) 16,636 1,360,301 81.8 Honolulu US
Arms of New Zealand.svg Niue Niue (New Zealand) 260 1,620 6.2 Alofi NU
Insigne Insularum Pitcairn.svg Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom) 47 47 1 Adamstown PN
Insigne Samoae.svg Samoa Samoa 2,944 196,129 66.3 Apia WS
Badge of Tokelau.svg
Tokelau Tokelau (New Zealand) 10 1,319 128.2 Atafu (de facto) TK
Insigne Tongae.svg Tonga Tonga 748 103,197 143.2 Nukuʻalofa TO
Insigne Tuvalum.svg Tuvalu Tuvalu 26 11,508 426.8 Funafuti TV
Coa Wallis Futuna.svg Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna (France) 274 11,661 43.4 Mata-Utu WF
Polynesia (total) 25,715 2,047,444 79.6
Total 8,919,530 47,178,430 5.1
Total minus mainland Australia 1,232,680 22,280,278 16.6

Largest city for regions

Urban areas

 
Largest population centres of Oceania
June 2020 estimate (SSGA18 boundaries)
Rank City name Country Pop. Rank City name Country Pop.
Sydney Opera house 3.jpg
Sydney

Melbourne skyline on 14 September 2013.jpg
Melbourne

1 Sydney Australia 5,131,326 11 Christchurch New Zealand 383,200 River views of Brisbane CBD seen from the top of 135 Coronation Drive, in March 2019, 14.jpg
Brisbane

Skyline of Perth seen from Perth Stadium, March 2021 02.jpg
Perth

2 Melbourne Australia 4,850,740 12 Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia 317,404
3 Brisbane Australia 2,408,223 13 Wollongong Australia 295,669
4 Perth Australia 2,043,138 14 Port Moresby Papua New Guinea 283,733
5 Auckland New Zealand 1,470,100 15 Jayapura Indonesia 256,705
6 Adelaide Australia 1,333,927 16 Wellington New Zealand 215,100
7 Honolulu United States 953,207 17 Hobart Australia 224,462
8 Gold Coast, Queensland Australia 646,983 18 Geelong Australia 196,393
9 Newcastle, New South Wales Australia 436,171 19 Sorong Indonesia 190,515
10 Canberra Australia 435,019 20 Hamilton, New Zealand New Zealand 176,500

Religion

Saione
Saione, the church of the King, a Free Wesleyan Church in Kolomotuʻa, Tonga. Especially British and American missionaries brought various Protestant denominations to Oceania.

The predominant religion in Oceania is Christianity (73%). A 2011 survey found that 92% in Melanesia, 93% in Micronesia and 96% in Polynesia described themselves as Christians. Traditional religions are often animist, and prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in spirits (masalai in Tok Pisin) representing natural forces. In the 2018 census, 37% of New Zealanders affiliated themselves with Christianity and 48% declared no religion. In the 2016 Census, 52% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity and 30% stated "no religion".

In recent Australian and New Zealand censuses, large proportions of the population say they belong to "no religion" (which includes atheism, agnosticism, deism, secular humanism). In Tonga, everyday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith. The Ahmadiyya mosque in Marshall Islands is the only mosque in Micronesia. Another one in Tuvalu belongs to the same sect. The Baháʼí House of Worship in Tiapapata, Samoa, is one of seven designations administered in the Baháʼí Faith.

Other religions in the region include Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism, which are prominent minority religions in Australia and New Zealand. Judaism, Sikhism and Jainism are also present. Sir Isaac Isaacs was the first Australian born Governor General of Australia and was the first Jewish vice-regal representative in the British Empire. Prince Philip Movement is followed around Yaohnanen village on the southern island of Tanna in Vanuatu.

Languages

Native languages of Oceania fall into three major geographic groups:

Colonial languages include English in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and many other territories; French in New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, and Vanuatu, Japanese in the Bonin Islands, Spanish on Galápagos Islands and Easter Island. There are also Creoles formed from the interaction of Malay or the colonial languages with indigenous languages, such as Tok Pisin, Bislama, Chavacano, various Malay trade and creole languages, Hawaiian Pidgin, Norfuk, and Pitkern. Contact between Austronesian and Papuan resulted in several instances in mixed languages such as Maisin.

Immigrants brought their own languages to the region, such as Mandarin, Hindi, Italian, Arabic, Portuguese, Polish, German, Spanish, Russian, Korean, Cantonese and Greek, among many others, namely in Australia and New Zealand, or Fiji Hindi in Fiji.

Immigration

Dutch Migrant 1954 MariaScholte=50000thToAustraliaPostWW2
Dutch immigrants arriving in Australia (1954)

The most multicultural areas in Oceania, which have a high degree of immigration, are Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii. Since 1945, more than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late 1970s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia a multicultural country.

Sydney is the most multicultural city in Oceania, having more than 250 different languages spoken with about 40 percent of residents speaking a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 36 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, with top countries being Italy, Lebanon, Vietnam and Iraq, among others. Melbourne is also fairly multicultural, having the largest Greek-speaking population outside of Europe, and the second largest Asian population in Australia after Sydney.

European migration to New Zealand provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, The Americas and Asia. Auckland is home to over half (51.6 percent) of New Zealand's overseas born population, including 72 percent of the country's Pacific Island-born population, 64 percent of its Asian-born population, and 56 percent of its Middle Eastern and African born population.

Portuguese immigrant family in Hawaii during the 19th century
Many Portuguese immigrants in Hawaii were Azorean or Madeiran.

Hawaii is a majority-minority state. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. As of 2015, a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry – especially Filipino, Japanese, Korean and Chinese. Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. Almost 13,000 Portuguese immigrants had arrived by 1899; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began in 1899 when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes, causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii.

Between 2001 and 2007 Australia's Pacific Solution policy transferred asylum seekers to several Pacific nations, including the Nauru detention centre. Australia, New Zealand and other nations took part in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands between 2003 and 2017 after a request for aid.

Archaeogenetics

Archaeology, linguistics, and existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration of Australo-Melanesians took place approximately 40 to 80 thousand years ago, and these migrants, Papuans, colonised much of Near Oceania. Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian speakers arrived in Near Oceania, and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonising Remote Oceania.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenising effect of this expansion. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years. Santa Cruz, a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin.

Large areas of New Guinea are unexplored by scientists and anthropologists due to extensive forestation and mountainous terrain. Known indigenous tribes in Papua New Guinea have very little contact with local authorities aside from the authorities knowing who they are. Many remain preliterate and, at the national or international level, the names of tribes and information about them is extremely hard to obtain. The Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua on the island of New Guinea are home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.

Archaeogenetics

Archaeology, linguistics, and existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration took place approximately 40 thousand years ago, and these migrants, Papuans, colonised much of Near Oceania. Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian speakers arrived in Near Oceania, and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonising Remote Oceania.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenising effect of this expansion. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years. Santa Cruz, a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin.

Religion

The predominant religion in Oceania is Christianity (73.3%). A 2011 survey found that 65.6% of Australia and New Zealand population, 92.1% in Melanesia, 93.1% in Micronesia and 96.1% in Polynesia described themselves as Christians.

Traditional religions are often animist, and prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in spirits (masalai in Tok Pisin) representing natural forces. In recent Australian and New Zealand censuses, large proportions of the population say they belong to "no religion" (which includes atheism, agnosticism, deism, secular humanism, and rationalism). In Tonga, everyday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith. The Ahmadiyya mosque in Marshall Islands is the only mosque in Micronesia. Another one in Tuvalu belongs to the same sect. The Bahá'í House of Worship in Tiapapata, Samoa, is one of seven designations administered in the Bahá'í Faith.

Economy

Australia and New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand are the only highly developed independent nations in the region, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world. New Caledonia, Hawaii and French Polynesia are highly developed too but are not sovereign states. Australia's per-capita GDP is higher than that of the UK, Canada, Germany, and France in terms of purchasing power parity. New Zealand is also one of the most globalised economies and depends greatly on international trade.

The Australian Securities Exchange in Sydney is the largest stock exchange in Australia and in the South Pacific. New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 68th-largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). In 2012, Australia was the 12th largest national economy by nominal GDP and the 19th-largest measured by PPP-adjusted GDP.

Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities. It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by GaWC. Melbourne also ranked highly in the world's most liveable city list, and is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. Auckland and Wellington, in New Zealand, are frequently ranked among the world's most liveable cities with Auckland being ranked 3rd according to the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.

The majority of people living in Australia and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in mining, electrical and manufacturing sectors also. Australia boasts the largest amount of manufacturing in the region, producing cars, electrical equipment, machinery and clothes.

Pacific Islands

Waikiki view from Diamond Head
Honolulu viewed from Diamond Head crater

The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States and South Korea. The smallest Pacific nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand and the United States for exporting goods and for accessing other products. Australia and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations. Australia and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia Summit (EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS.

The main produce from the Pacific is copra or coconut, but timber, beef, palm oil, cocoa, sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of the Pacific. Fishing provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Natural Resources, such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, are mined in Australia and Solomon Islands. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea and the European Union.

Endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, Fiji is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though it remains a developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector. Agriculture accounts for 18% of gross domestic product, although it employed some 70% of the workforce as of 2001. Sugar exports and the growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar cane processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Coconuts, ginger, and copra are also significant.

The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries; sandalwood, whaling, sugarcane, pineapple, the military, tourism and education. Hawaiian exports include food and clothing. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.S. The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. As of 2015, Honolulu was ranked high on world livability rankings, and was also ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U.S.

Tourism

Shangri-La Fijian Resort 15
Shangri-La's Fijian Resort

Tourists mostly come from Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Fiji currently attracts almost half a million tourists each year, more than a quarter of whom come from Australia. This has contributed $1 billion or more to Fiji's economy since 1995, but the Government of Fiji likely underestimates these figures due to the invisible economy inside the tourism industry.

Vanuatu is widely recognised as one of the premier vacation destinations for scuba divers wishing to explore coral reefs of the South Pacific region. Tourism has been promoted, in part, by Vanuatu being the site of several reality-TV shows. The ninth season of the reality TV series Survivor was filmed on Vanuatu, entitled Survivor: Vanuatu – Islands of Fire. Two years later, Australia's Celebrity Survivor was filmed at the same location used by the US version.

Autumn in the Dandenong Ranges
Dandenong Ranges in Victoria are popular among tourists.

Tourism in Australia is an important component of the Australian economy. In the financial year 2014/15, tourism represented 3% of Australia's GDP contributing A$47.5 billion to the national economy. In 2015, there were 7.4 million visitor arrivals. Popular Australian destinations include the Sydney Harbour (Sydney Opera House, Sydney Harbour Bridge, Royal Botanic Garden, etc.), Gold Coast (theme parks such as Warner Bros. Movie World, Dreamworld and Sea World), Walls of Jerusalem National Park and Mount Field National Park in Tasmania, Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne, the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, The Twelve Apostles in Victoria, Uluru (Ayers Rock) and the Australian outback.

Tourism in New Zealand contributes NZ$7.3 billion (or 4%) of the country's GDP in 2013, as well as directly supporting 110,800 full-time equivalent jobs (nearly 6% of New Zealand's workforce). International tourist spending accounted for 16% of New Zealand's export earnings (nearly NZ$10 billion). International and domestic tourism contributes, in total, NZ$24 billion to New Zealand's economy every year. Tourism New Zealand, the country's official tourism agency, is actively promoting the country as a destination worldwide. Milford Sound in South Island is acclaimed as New Zealand's most famous tourist destination.

In 2003 alone, according to state government data, there were over 6.4 million visitors to the Hawaiian Islands with expenditures of over $10.6 billion. Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. In 2011, Hawaii saw increasing arrivals and share of foreign tourists from Canada, Australia and China increasing 13%, 24% and 21% respectively from 2010.

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