|City of Clarence
The City of Clarence
|Coordinates||Script error: The function "coordinsert" does not exist.|
|Population||54,674 (2015 est)|
|• Density||141.64/km2 (366.8/sq mi)|
|Area||386 km2 (149.0 sq mi)|
|Council seat||Rosny Park|
|Region||Hobart eastern shore|
|Website||City of Clarence|
The City of Clarence is located between the eastern shore of the Derwent River to the west, Pitt Water and the Coal River valley to the east, the Meehan Range to the north, and Storm Bay to the south. Being on the eastern shore of the Derwent River, it is located opposite to Hobart and Glenorchy, both of which are located on the western shore. Despite only being the 29th largest city in Australia in terms of population (52,935), it is the 9th largest city in Australia in terms of area (386 km² or 149.0 sq mi). Despite this, more than one third of the city remains untouched bushland. The administrative centre of Clarence at Rosny Park is approximately 5 kilometres from the CBD of Hobart. The City of Clarence is administered by the Clarence City Council, and is home to both the Hobart International Airport and Bellerive Oval. Rosny Park is the main commercial district in the east of Greater Hobart (featuring Eastlands Shopping Centre) and also the administrative centre of the City of Clarence.
The area that now constitutes the City of Clarence was once part of the traditional land of the Moomairemener, a sub-group of the Tasmanian Aborigines. In 1803, the island of Tasmania (then Van Diemen's Land) was colonised by United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, who subsequently established the settlement of Hobart Town. By the 1820s the settlement had spread to the 'Clarence Plains', but the area remained primarily agricultural until the mid to late 20th century, when it experienced a residential development boom. Since then Clarence has grown rapidly to become a self-sufficient city.
The City of Clarence is named indirectly after King William IV of the United Kingdom. From 1789 until 1830, when he ascended the throne, he was titled His Royal Highness The Duke of Clarence and St Andrews. It was during this period that the British settlement of Hobart was founded in 1803.
Prior to the establishment of the British colony there, Captain John Hayes of the East India Company had sailed up the Derwent River, with the vessels Duke of Clarence and the Duchess of Bengal in 1793. Relieved at making landfall following an arduous crossing of the Indian Ocean, Hayes named the region around Rokeby as 'Clarence Plains', in honour of the vessel having delivered them safely to a sanctuary. The vessel in turn, had been initially named in honour of the then future King. Almost immediately following the exploration of the region following the settlement of Hobart in 1803, Hayes name of 'Clarence Plains' fell into common use.
For over half a century, this was the name of the entire eastern shore of the Derwent River south of the Meehan Range. When it was first incorporated as a municipality in 1860, the region became referred to as the 'Clarence Municipality'. This was to remain the name of the region until 1988, when Clarence was officially declared a city, and the name changed to the 'City of Clarence'. It is not usual for Clarence residents to be referred to by a gentilic, and if so they are usually given the title Hobartians along with all other residents of Greater Hobart, however locally they are usually identified as being 'from the eastern shore'.
It is believed the indigenous Tasmanian Aborigines have lived in Tasmania for at least 35,000 years. Whilst there is little evidence of their occupation, Aboriginal middens can often be found along the coastline of the City of Clarence, indicating that they hunted, and searched for seafood and shellfish in the region.
Prior to the arrival of the British, there was nine distinctive 'nations' or 'tribes' within Tasmania. The eastern shore seems to have been home to the Moomairemener. It is not known if they were a separate nation, or a sub-group of the Oyster Bay Clan (Paredarerme) whose territory stretched from the Tasman Peninsular to St Patrick's Head, just south of the modern Tasmanian township of St Mary's.
For the Moomairemener the area along the eastern shore of the Derwent was known as 'Nannyelebata'. They valued the region for its rich variety of birds, animals, seafood, and vegetation.
Clarence was the site of the first European settlement in Tasmania (then Van Diemen's Land) in 1803 at Risdon Cove. At the time Napoleonic France and Great Britain were at war with each other. Fearing the arrival of French explorers who may have wished to make a rival claim to the island of Van Diemen's Land, the then Governor of New South Wales, Philip Gidley King dispatched a young 23-year-old Lieutenant by the name of John Bowen to establish a colony there. The first vessel of his party, Lady Nelson arrived in the Derwent on Wednesday, 8 September 1803, and Bowen arrived five days later aboard Albion.
Bowen selected the inlet at Risdon Cove, as when he had arrived in Spring the nearby stream was in full-flow. However within months it had dried up, and his camp was in despair for want of water. The site at Risdon Cove was badly affect by inconsistent water supply, and stagnation of the inlet during the late summer.
King was insecure about Bowen's juniority and inexperience as a young commander, and when he was contacted by David Collins, who had been dispatched directly from England aboard HMS Calcutta with HMS Ocean as a supply vessel, to establish a colony at Port Phillip, he redirected Collins' expedition to the Derwent.
Collin's party arrived on the Derwent River on 16 February 1804, and immediately became becalmed in Storm Bay. Collin's dispatched troops to row ashore off what is now Rokeby to march overland to the camp at Risdon and announce their arrival. The party found navigating the thick Australian bushland hard-going, but did gain useful intelligence as the nature of the area. In the end, they only arrived shortly before the ships were able to navigate up-river.
Upon his arrival, Collins discovered the camp in such a state of despair for want of water, it was threatened with collapse. He immediately set about his first task of relocating the colony to the mouth of the Hobart Rivulet on Sullivans Cove. From there, the city of Hobart grew.
The relocation of the colony did not end the desire to settle the eastern shore of the Derwent though. Within the first few years following the establishment of Hobart Town, difficulties in growing crops led to difficulties providing food. The initial intelligence from the soldiers that had marched overland from Rokeby to Risdon Vale, and subsequent explorations suggested the plains on the eastern shore of the Derwent were more suited to agriculture.
The successful establishment of crops on Clarence Plains was vital to the survival of Hobart Town. When new settlers arrived from Norfolk Island in 1808, some were granted land in the Derwent Valley, and others upon Clarence Plains. Very soon a mixture of mansions and fine houses, cottages, inns and churches began to be built in the area. However the population growth on the eastern shore was much slower than that of Hobart Town, despite the close proximity of the young town. By the 1810s, a ferryman was making regular crossings of the Derwent between Sullivans Cove, and 'Kangaroo Point', near where the ferry still arrives at Bellerive Quay. The point was so-called due to the large numbers of Kangaroos that would be seen grazing there in the first few decades after European arrival. By the late 1810s, farmers, timbermen, and pioneers had begun settling on the eastern shore of the Derwent River.
By the early 1820s a small village was growing around Kangaroo Point, that was soon to become Bellerive, making it the first site of permanent settlement in Clarence Plains. Bellerive was well fed by a freshwater stream that emptied into Kangaroo Bay, and it still exists running parallel to Rosny Park Public Golf Course as a storm water culvert.
The next areas within Clarence Plains to be settled on the eastern shore of Hobart's Derwent River, were Rosny, and its neighbours Montagu Bay and Lindisfarne to the north. Private properties had been built in each of these localities by the late 1820s, commanding excellent views across the Derwent to Hobart Town and Mount Wellington. All three suburbs are named after the three fine houses established. Although private estates and farms began to spring up throughout the district, settlements were generally isolated, with Bellerive, Cambridge, Lindisfarne, and Richmond the only major settlements of note. In 1836, Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land, George Arthur divided the island into administrative counties, and Clarence Plains fell into Pembrokeshire. Despite this, the Clarence Plains region became a municipality in its own right in 1860. In 1862, Bellerive also became the administrative centre of the municipality, and the Eastern Police District, but for much of the late nineteenth century, Clarence Plains experienced little development, remaining primarily agricultural.
A review of colonial defences in the 1870s saw a complete overhaul of the coastal defences of Hobart, and a new fortress called Kangaroo Battery was constructed between 1880 and 1888 just to the south of Bellerive. It was hoped that is could eventually be connected to the Tasmanian Main Line at Brighton, thus providing rail access to the south of Clarence Plains, Sorrell and the Tasman Peninsular, but engineering difficulties and economic problems led to its abandonment.
At the beginning of the twentieth century the eastern shore of the Derwent was still little more than isolated villages, and homesteads. This remained the situation for the next forty years, until on 22 December 1943, the floating pontoon style Hobart Bridge was opened. Despite soon developing a reputation of being treacherous to cross in stormy weather, and suffering delays caused by its lifting span opening to allow maritime traffic to pass, it created previously unprecedented access to the eastern shore. Almost immediately demand for residential property there increased. By 1947 the population of Clarence Plains had reached 5,000 for the first time.
In the 1950s, post-war demand for housing led the State Government to create a public housing programme, providing cheap accommodation to cope with returning servicemen, and the boom in migrant labour. Suburbs such as Bellerive, Lindisfarne, Montagu Bay, Mornington, Rosny and Warrane all expanded dramatically throughout the 1950s and 1960s, and housing from the period still often bears the distinctive design patterns of former government housing. For many parts of the city electricity supply only arrived in the 1950s, and sealed roads, mains water, and sewage only began to be provided in the 1960s.
The eastern shore housing boom had highlighted the inadequacies of the Hobart Bridge. Bad weather made it difficult to cross, and the massive increase in traffic in the 1950s led to severe congestion. The traffic problems, delays caused by the raising of the navigation section for maritime traffic, and the toll all proved extremely unpopular. The government announced plans to build a new bridge at a cost of £7 million, and in 1960, construction commenced on the Tasman Bridge. It opened on 18 August 1964, and greatly increased the volume of traffic capable of crossing the river. The opening of the new bridge also saw the development of two new major connecting highways, the east-heading Tasman Highway, and the north-heading East Derwent Highway, greatly improving access both to, and through Clarence.
An increasing variety of services opened on the eastern shore. The Metropolitan Transport Trust supported the expansion into the eastern shore, by opening up an excellent network of bus routes into the municipality. In 1963 the Clarence War Memorial Pool was constructed, and in 1965, Eastlands Shopping Centre opened in Rosny Park, being further expanded in 1971 and 1978. The shopping centre proved a commercial success, and helped drive growth on the eastern shore. By the mid-1970s the population had passed the 40,000 mark at an incredible post-war rate of growth.
But the late twentieth century also saw two terrible disasters occur with Clarence. Much of the municipality suffered terrible damage and many homes were lost during the infamous 1967 Tasmanian fires. A second disaster occurred in the city in 1975 when the bulk carrier, Lake Illawarra collided with the Tasman Bridge collapsing a section of roadway in the Tasman Bridge Disaster. Ironically, this event, which severed 'The Eastern Shore' from Hobart for nearly three years, was responsible for considerable infrastructure growth on 'The Eastern Shore', leading to it being largely self-sustaining, and being declared a city in its own right by 1988.
In the 1970s and 1980s the expansion of the Municipality of Clarence continued. Many previously rural areas developed into residential areas. New suburbs arose, such as Flagstaff Gully, Geilston Bay, and Old Beach to the north, and Cremorne, Howrah, Lauderdale, Rokeby, and Tranmere towards the south of the city. At the same time, Rosny Park continued to grow in importance as the administrative centre of the city, with the Clarence Council Chambers, Bellerive Police Station and Bellerive Post Office all relocating there. Banking services also relocated branches, and many new retailers opened, complimenting the prosperous Eastlands Shopping Centre. Commonwealth government offices soon also began opening with services such as Centrelink, the Australian Taxation Office, and the National Archives of Australia. The growth was such that the municipality was officially incorporated as a city on 24 November 1988, with the population having grown beyond 50,000. In 1993, the nearby town of Richmond was absorbed into the city of Clarence.
The early 21st Century has seen Rosny Park continue to develop as the centre of the city. Expansion to Eastlands Shopping Centre and the nearby commercial businesses on Bligh and Bayfield Streets has seen a strong growth in retail. A Multi-screen cinema also opened in 2003, continuing the increasing availability of local services. The launch of the council's 'Kangaroo Bay Urban Design Strategy and Concept Plan' saw an attempt to modernise the town-planning of the City Centre with a programme of regeneration, improved infrastructure and amenities, the creation of a foreshore promenade and more appropriate urban landscaping. The plan sees the Kangaroo Bay area divided into five distinct precincts; Rosny Parklands, Kangaroo Bay East, Ferry Wharf, Bellerive Yacht Club, and 'The Village'.
The City of Clarence, along with Glenorchy, Hobart, and Kingborough form Greater Hobart. The boundaries of the city stretch from the South Arm peninsular in the south bordered by Ralph's Bay, to Seven Mile Beach and the Pitt Water in the east, bordered by Frederick Henry Bay, to the Municitpality of Sorell in the north-east, and the Southern Midlands and Municipality of Brighton to the north. The city's western border is the Derwent River along the entire length.
In terms of area, Clarence is one of the largest cities in Australia, covering over 386 square kilometres, with 191 kilometres of coastline, including over twenty beaches, the most popular of which are Bellerive Beach, Howrah Beach, Seven Mile Beach and Clifton Beach. More than a third of the total city area is untouched bushland, with many parks, and large areas given over to nature reserves.
The city has large areas of residential property interspersed with natural flora, typically sclerophyll bushland. The city is dominated by the long, low-lying range of hills known as the Meehan Range which runs parallel to the river. A unique feature of both shores of the Derwent is the way that housing is only built to a certain height, preserving the natural skyline along the hill tops. There is large areas of farmland, and many vineyards, particularly in the Coal River valley. It also includes some rural and non-urban areas, such as the South Arm peninsular.
There are more than thirty suburbs with the city of Clarence. They are not named according to a convention. Many have been named after the first fine house that was built in the area (Bellerive, Lindisfarne, Montagu Bay, Geilston Bay, and Rosny), others are named for geographical features (Flagstaff Gully, Mount Rumney, and Roches Beach). Some, such as Bellerive, Lindisfarne and Richmond first developed as isolated villages, and others, such as Mornington and Warrane developed through public housing programmes.
Much of the city along the eastern shore of the Derwent is a connected urban environment, although primarily residential. From Cremorne and Rokeby in the south, Clarence continues uninterrupted to Old Beach in the north. Other suburbs, such as Acton Park, Cambridge and Richmond are isolated communities. Most suburbs are served by centralised commercial services that are found primarily in Rosny Park which is the city's central business district. Other commercial services are still provided in the older village centres in Bellerive, Howrah, Lindisfarne and Richmond.
Located at 42° South, the City of Clarence has a mild temperate maritime climate (Group C:Cfb, according to the Köppen climate classification) with an average summer temperature of 21 °C. On average, Clarence is warmer, and has less annual precipitation than Hobart or Glenorchy. The southern regions of the city are notorious for being affected by strong southerly winds known locally as the 'sea breeze', particularly during summer months. The City of Clarence generally receives sunrise two to three minutes before Hobart and Glenorchy, and sunset is also experienced slightly after the western shore, due to the angle of shadow cast by Mount Wellington.
|Climate data for Hobart Airport|
|Average high °C (°F)||22.4
|Average low °C (°F)||12.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||41.6
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Culture, sport and recreation
For many years the eastern shore of the Derwent River lagged behind the development of arts and cultural activities that had occurred within Hobart itself. The first attempt at redressing this saw the establishment of public libraries in Bellerive and Lindisfarne. The original Bellerive Police Station was also redeveloped as a Community Arts Centre.
The council now sponsors an exhibition programme of arts at the historic Rosny Farm property. In 2006 the farmhouse was redeveloped in sympathy with its heritage to allow new visual and performing arts spaces.
One area where the Clarence City Council has been particularly effective is in developing Community Arts events. For many years the Carols by Candlelight festival held annually in Charles Hand Park in the heart of the city, has continued to draw crowds of upwards of 20,000. Other annual events organised by the council include the City of Clarence Australia Day Festival, the Clarence Jazz Festival, and the Clarence Seafarers Festival - incorporating the Bellerive Regatta.
The City of Clarence has few local media services, but is provided with media services that cover the entire area of Greater Hobart. The best selling newspaper is the daily The Mercury. In 1985 a local free weekly newspaper The Southern Star was begun by publisher Harris & Co, however the difficult advertising market in a small community meant it could not sustain a rivalry with the The Mercury, and it closed in December 1995. The Eastern Shore Sun is a freely delivered newspaper detailing local issues and events in the City of Clarence.
Television is provided by five licensed operators, the government provided Australian Broadcasting Corporation, and Special Broadcasting Service, and the commercial operators WIN Television and Southern Cross Television. In 2004 Tasmanian Digital Television was developed as a collaborative effort between WIN and Southern Cross to develop a digital broadcasting television service.
The City of Clarence has a very active culture of sports. It is home to one of Australia's nine test cricket grounds in Bellerive Oval. The ground usually hosts Australian home tests once every two years, and one-day internationals on an annual basis. It is also the home ground for the Tasmanian Tigers, Tasmania's first-class cricket team.
Bellerive Oval is also home to two of the cities elite sports teams, the Clarence District Cricket Club who compete in the Tasmanian Grade Cricket competition, and the Clarence Football Club, known colloquially as 'The Roos' who compete in the Tasmanian Football League, both of whom are semi-professional. Both sides also have derby rivals also based within the City of Clarence. For the cricket side, rivals Lindisfarne Cricket Club are located 3 km (2 mi) to the north, and for the Australian Rules football side, Lauderdale Football Club are located 7 km (4 mi) to the South.
Both teams have proved extremely successful: Clarence Football Club won the Tasmanian Football League in 1970, 1979, 1981, 1984, 1993–94, 1996–97, and 2000 (9 times in total), as well as winning the Southern Football League in 2001, 2002, 2004, and 2006 (4 total), during the period in which the statewide league was not competed for.
Other amateur cricket clubs, Montagu Bay Cricket Club,
Olympia FC Warriors based at Warrior Park, Warrane is the cities premier football team and play in the Victory League. Clarence United based at Wentworth Park, Howrah compete in the Southern Championship. Less successful than their cricket and Australian Rules rivals, Clarence United have been Southern Championship on one occasion in 1998. Nelson Eastern Suburbs Soccer Club is also based in Clarence at the North Warrane Oval and also compete in the Southern Championship.
The standard of public sporting facilities is generally excellent throughout the city, with provision for most popular sports at venues such as the Clarence Aquatic Centre (home to the State Swimming Championships until 1998), the Clarence Sports Centre, and Wentworth Park, home base for Southern Touch (Touch Football) and also hockey. Along with Clarence Sports Centre, Bellerive Sports Centre and Warrane Sports Centre provide facilities for sports such as basketball, indoor football, squash, tennis and badminton. Nearby Edgeworth Street in Warrane is home to a baseball ground and the Eastern Shore Action Indoor Sports Centre (covering Indoor Cricket, Indoor Soccer and Indoor Netball). North Warrane Oval is home to Eastern Suburbs Rugby Union Football Club Inc. competing in the Tasmanian Rugby Union statewide League.
There is also a very active club sports community within most of these sports. Tennis, golf and bowls are also popular, particularly amongst older adults.Rosny Park Public Golf Course is a 9-hole golf course located in the heart of the city, but there are also seven other golf courses located throughout Clarence, including Tasmania's premier club, the Tasmanian Golf Club.
Most local schools participate in school competitions in major popular sports such as association football (also sometimes referred to as soccer in Australia), Australian rules football, cricket, hockey, netball, Touch Football, swimming and athletics. Many of these schools are equipped with their own home grounds for many of these sports and almost all at least have cricket grounds.
The city of Clarence is blessed with many open spaces, parks and areas of bushland. In addition to hills, there is 191 km (119 mi) of shoreline, much of which is connected with paths, as well as over 30 beaches. Bellerive Yacht Club is located within the city on the shore of the Derwent River in Kangaroo Bay. It is the second largest sailing club in southern Tasmania with over 800 members, and an annual turnover of over A$ 1 million. The club also host the annual Bellerive Regatta every February. Other water sports and boating activities such as sailing, boating, fishing and diving are also popular within the city, which has eleven boat ramps, and numerous jetties. Cycling is also a popular activity, and several kilometres of cycleways exist within the city, particularly following the shoreline. Horse riding facilities can be found at Acton and surfing is popular at Clifton and Goats Beaches.
As of the 2004 census, the population of the City of Clarence was 50,257, making it the 29th largest city in Australia. By 30 June 2010, it was estimated to have risen to 52,935. Of these, 40,177 were over the age of 15, and 7,862 were over the age of 65. The average age of Clarence residents is 40. 1,331 (2.7%) residents of the City of Clarence identified themselves as Indigenous Australians, an increase of 53 from the 2001 census. 51% of Clarence residents over the age of 15 were married, 12% were separated or divorced, 7% were widowed, and 30% never married.
The City of Clarence is a primarily residential city with 20,737 dwellings, although small scale manufacturing, agriculture, viticulture, retail and government administration are all prevalent. The majority of the residences (17,298) in Clarence are separate detached houses (90%), although 998 residences were attached housing (5%), 831 were flats (4%), and there was also 94 other residences which did not fall into any of these categories. There was an average of 2.5 persons per dwelling, and out of the 20,737 residences 1,532 or 7% were vacant. 37% of occupied dwellings were privately owned, a further 37% were mortgaged, 20% rented, and the rest rent-free or under some other form of tenure. The average house price in Clarence is A$ 310,000. The average weekly mortgage cost is $243, and the average cost of rent is $150.
The major sectors of employment are retail (20%), education (12%), health and Community services (12%), property management and business services (5%), and construction and trades (5%). The average weekly income of Clarence residents (August 2006) is $458, which is $60 above the state average. The median household income is $1,124, $92 above the states average, and proves to be an average increase of 8% from the 2001 average.
85% of residents of Clarence were born in Tasmania, similar to the state average of 83%. Of those, 92% identified as being Anglo-Celtic Australian. However this proportion has decreased by 1.1% from the 2001 figure. 91% of residents were Australian citizens, exactly the same as the state figure. Of those not born in Tasmania, the next most common birthplaces were England (1,996 or 4.0% of total), New Zealand (335, 0.7%), Scotland (288, 0.6%), Germany (228, 0.5%), and the Netherlands (182, 0.4%).
92% of Clarence residents spoke English as their primary language. Other languages identified as frequently spoken within the city were Greek (199 speakers), German (157), Italian (107), Spanish (80), and Dutch (60). 3,155 residents identified various other languages as regularly spoken within the city.
The most commonly identified religious beliefs amongst residents of the City of Clarence were Anglicanism (16,217, or 21%), Roman Catholic (10,610, or 19%), and Uniting (2,331, or 2%). 9,917 residents (20%) belonged to various other faiths, and 9,611 (or 5%) identified as having no religion.
- A Alexander, The eastern shore, Rosny Park, 2003.
- The Eastern Shore - A History of Clarence. Published by the Clarence City Council. Clarence, Tasmania. (2003)
- Clarence - A Brighter Place. Published by the Clarence City Council. Clarence, Tasmania. (2003)
- , Vol 1, Vol 2
Images for kids
Rose Bay High School, which overlooks the eastern end of the Tasman Bridge, is one of the four high schools in the City of Clarence.
Clarence City Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.