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Nottingham
City and unitary authority area
City of Nottingham
From top left: Robin Hood, Council House, NET Tram, Castle Rock Brewery, Trent Bridge, the Castle Gate House, Wollaton Hall, Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem and Nottingham Forest's City Ground
From top left: Robin Hood, Council House, NET Tram, Castle Rock Brewery, Trent Bridge, the Castle Gate House, Wollaton Hall, Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem and Nottingham Forest's City Ground
Nickname(s): "the Queen of the Midlands"
Motto: Vivit Post Funera Virtus (Virtue Outlives Death)
Nottingham shown within Nottinghamshire and England
Nottingham shown within Nottinghamshire and England
Sovereign state  United Kingdom
Constituent country  England
Region East Midlands
Ceremonial county Nottinghamshire
Settled 600
City Status 1897
Area
 • City 74.61 km2 (28.81 sq mi)
Elevation 46 m (151 ft)
Population (2015)
 • City 318,900
 • Urban 729,977(LUZ:825,600)
 • Metro 1,543,000 (Nottingham-Derby)
 • Ethnicity
(2011 Census)
  • 71.5% White (65.4% White British)
  • 13.1% Asian
  • 7.3% Black British
  • 6.7% Mixed Race
  • 1.5% Other
Demonym(s) Nottinghamian
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
 • Summer (DST) British Summer Time (UTC+1)
Postal Code NG
Area code(s) 0115
Grid Ref. SK570400
ONS code
  • 00FY (ONS)
  • E06000018 (GSS)
ISO 3166-2 GB-NGM
NUTS 3 UKF14
Website nottinghamcity.gov.uk

Nottingham (Listeni/ˈnɒtɪŋəm/ NOT-ing-əm) is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, located 128 miles (206 km) north of London, in the East Midlands.

Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making, bicycle (notably Raleigh bikes) and tobacco industries. It was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination; in 2011, visitors spent over £1.5 billion - the thirteenth highest amount in England's 111 statistical territories.

In 2015, Nottingham had an estimated population of 318,900 with the wider urban area, which includes many of the city's suburbs, having a population of 729,977. Its urban area is the largest in the east Midlands and the second largest in the Midlands. The population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,543,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn (2014). The city is also ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is also served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system.

It is also a major sporting centre, and in October 2015 was named 'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, and Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, which is also the home of professional football, rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, and the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year after Nottingham was named as the UK's first City of Football.

On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a Unesco City of Literature, joining Norwich, Melbourne, Prague and Barcelona as one of only a handful in the world. The title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, DH Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city.

It has two universities, the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University, which are attended by over 60,000 students.

History

See also: History of Nottingham and Timeline of Nottingham

The city predates Anglo-Saxon times and was known in Brythonic as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves (known also as "City of Caves"). In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling". When it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham"; the homestead of Snot's people (-inga = the people of; -ham = homestead). Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga, caves, and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form".

Nottingham Castle Gate 2009
Nottingham Castle

Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. The Anglo-Saxon settlement was originally confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey (1086). Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts. A settlement also developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted initially of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century. The ditch was later widened, in the mid 13th century, and a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, and is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, and is protected as a Scheduled Monument.

On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham. It was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw.

Jan Siberechts - View of Nottingham from the East
Nottingham from the east in c. 1695, painted by Jan Siberechts

By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham Alabaster. The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire.

One of those highly impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, and a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway, where a bridge spans the Trent. ... Nottingham ... with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."

During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry; in particular, the city became an internationally important centre of lace manufacture. In 1831 citizens rioted in protest against the Duke of Newcastle's opposition to the Reform Act 1832, setting fire to his residence, Nottingham Castle.

Nottingham Map 1831 by Staveley and Wood
Nottingham in 1831

In common with the UK textile industry, Nottingham's textile sector fell into decline in the decades following World War II. Little textile manufacture now takes place in Nottingham; however, many of the former industrial buildings in the Lace Market district have been restored and put to new uses.

Nottingham was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and at that time consisted of the parishes of St Mary, St Nicholas and St Peter. It was expanded in 1877 by adding the parishes of Basford, Brewhouse Yard, Bulwell, Radford, Sneinton, Standard Hill, and parts of the parishes of West Bridgford, Carlton, Wilford (North Wilford). In 1889 Nottingham became a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888. City status was awarded as part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of Queen Victoria, being signified in a letter from the prime minister, the Marquess of Salisbury to the mayor, dated 18 June 1897. Nottingham was extended in 1933 by adding Bilborough and Wollaton, parts of the parishes of Bestwood Park and Colwick, and a recently developed part of the Beeston Urban District. A further boundary extension was granted in 1951 when Clifton and Wilford (south of the River Trent) were incorporated into the city.

Demographic evolution of Nottingham
Year Population
4th century <37
10th century <1,000
11th century 1,500
14th century 3,000
Early 17th century 4,000
Year Population
Late 17th century 5,000
1801 29,000
1811 34,000
1821 40,000
1831 51,000
Year Population
1841 53,000
1851 58,000
1861 76,000
1871 87,000
1881 159,000
Year Population
1901 240,000
1911 260,000
1921 269,000
1931 265,000
1951 306,000
Year Population
1961 312,000
1971 301,000
1981 278,000
1991 273,000
2001 275,000

Electric trams were introduced to the city in 1901; they served the city for 35 years until the trolleybus network was begun in 1927. Trams were reintroduced after 68 years when a new network opened in 2004.

In the sporting world, Nottingham is home to the world's oldest professional football club, Notts County, which was formed in 1862. The town's other football club, Nottingham Forest, had a period of success between 1977 and 1993 under manager Brian Clough, winning the First Division, four League Cups, a UEFA Super Cup and two European Cups. During this time Forest signed Trevor Francis, Britain's first £1 million footballer, who joined the club in February 1979 from Birmingham City.

The city was the site of race riots in 1958, centred on the St Ann's neighbourhood.

During the second half of the 20th century Nottingham saw urban growth with the development of new public and private housing estates and new urban centres, which have engulfed former rural villages such as Bilborough, Wollaton, Gedling and Bramcote. South of the river there has also been expansion with new areas such as Edwalton and West Bridgford, adding to Nottingham's urban sprawl. Although this growth slowed towards the end of the century, the modern pressures for more affordable and council housing is back on the political agenda and there is now pressure on the Green Belt which surrounds the city.

Geography

Nottingham is situated on an area of low hills along the lower valley of the River Trent, and is surrounded by the Sherwood Forest in the north, the Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Yorkshire Coalfield in the west, and the Trent and Belvoir Vales in the east and south.

Map

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Map of Nottingham showing the city boundary

Within the city

Around the city

Climate

There are weather reporting stations close to Nottingham – the former "Nottingham Weather Centre", at Watnall, about 6 miles (10 km) north-west of the city centre; and the University of Nottingham's agricultural campus at Sutton Bonington, about 10 miles (16 km) to the south-west of the city centre. The highest temperature recorded in Nottingham (Watnall) stands at 34.6 °C (94.3 °F), whilst at Sutton Bonington stands at 34.8 °C (94.6 °F) both recorded on 3 August 1990, and the record high minimum temperature is 19.9 °C (67.8 °F) recorded in August 2004. On average, a temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) or above is recorded on 11.0 days per year at Watnall (1981–2010), and the warmest day of the year reaches an average of 29.4 °C (84.9 °F).

For the period 1981–2010 Nottingham (Watnall) recorded on average 42.9 days of air frost per year, and Sutton Bonington 47.1. The lowest recorded temperature in Nottingham (Watnall) is −13.3 °C (8.1 °F) recorded in January 1963 and January 1987. The record low maximum temperature is −6.3 °C (20.7 °F) recorded in January 1963. For the period of 1981-2010, the coldest temperature of the year reaches an average of −6.6 °C (20.1 °F) in Nottingham (Watnall).

Climate data for Nottingham Watnall, elevation: 117 m or 384 ft (1981-2010) Extremes (1960-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
17.3
(63.1)
22.8
(73)
25.6
(78.1)
27.6
(81.7)
30.8
(87.4)
34.0
(93.2)
34.6
(94.3)
29.2
(84.6)
28.0
(82.4)
17.9
(64.2)
15.1
(59.2)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
7.0
(44.6)
9.7
(49.5)
12.5
(54.5)
16.1
(61)
18.9
(66)
21.3
(70.3)
21.0
(69.8)
17.9
(64.2)
13.7
(56.7)
9.4
(48.9)
6.7
(44.1)
13.4
(56.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
4.1
(39.4)
6.3
(43.3)
8.4
(47.1)
11.6
(52.9)
14.5
(58.1)
16.7
(62.1)
16.5
(61.7)
14.0
(57.2)
10.4
(50.7)
6.7
(44.1)
4.2
(39.6)
9.8
(49.6)
Average low °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.1
(34)
2.8
(37)
4.3
(39.7)
7.1
(44.8)
10.0
(50)
12.1
(53.8)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50)
7.1
(44.8)
3.9
(39)
1.6
(34.9)
6.1
(43)
Record low °C (°F) −13.3
(8.1)
−11.1
(12)
−10.6
(12.9)
−4.6
(23.7)
−2.1
(28.2)
1.0
(33.8)
4.4
(39.9)
4.5
(40.1)
0.9
(33.6)
−3.1
(26.4)
−9.2
(15.4)
-12.0
(10.4)
−13.3
(8.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 61.2
(2.409)
47.2
(1.858)
49.5
(1.949)
53.8
(2.118)
51.8
(2.039)
62.5
(2.461)
57.6
(2.268)
62.0
(2.441)
58.6
(2.307)
71.2
(2.803)
65.7
(2.587)
68.6
(2.701)
709.4
(27.929)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.8 10.0 11.1 9.9 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.4 9.4 11.2 11.8 12.1 124.2
Sunshine hours 54.7 73.2 104.2 141.0 181.6 170.6 191.1 180.1 131.2 99.4 63.7 49.2 1,440.1
Source #1: Met Office
Source #2: KNMI
Climate data for Nottingham Sutton Bonington, elevation: 48 m or 157 ft (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.2
(45)
7.5
(45.5)
10.3
(50.5)
12.9
(55.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.2
(66.6)
21.7
(71.1)
21.4
(70.5)
18.4
(65.1)
14.2
(57.6)
10.0
(50)
7.3
(45.1)
13.9
(57)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.4
(39.9)
6.7
(44.1)
8.5
(47.3)
11.6
(52.9)
14.5
(58.1)
16.8
(62.2)
16.7
(62.1)
14.2
(57.6)
10.7
(51.3)
7.1
(44.8)
4.5
(40.1)
10.0
(50)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.3
(34.3)
3.0
(37.4)
4.1
(39.4)
6.8
(44.2)
9.8
(49.6)
11.9
(53.4)
11.9
(53.4)
9.9
(49.8)
7.2
(45)
4.1
(39.4)
1.7
(35.1)
6.1
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches) 52.2
(2.055)
38.9
(1.531)
43.9
(1.728)
48.9
(1.925)
44.2
(1.74)
60.2
(2.37)
54.1
(2.13)
55.5
(2.185)
51.0
(2.008)
61.0
(2.402)
54.5
(2.146)
55.9
(2.201)
620.2
(24.417)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.9 9.1 10.6 9.7 8.7 9.4 8.7 8.6 8.2 10.2 10.2 10.9 115.2
Sunshine hours 52.3 74.4 107.4 143.9 178.2 158.1 188.0 179.0 134.1 104.0 60.9 43.3 1,423.5
Source: Met Office

Architecture

The geographical centre of Nottingham is usually defined as the Old Market Square. The square is dominated by the Council House, which replaced The Nottingham Exchange Building, built in 1726. The Council House was built in the 1920s to display civic pride, ostentatiously using baroque columns and placing stone statues of two lions at the front to stand watch over the square. The Exchange Arcade, on the ground floor, is an upmarket shopping centre containing boutiques.

Byron house 2
Nottingham Trent University, Arkwright Building

Tall office buildings line Maid Marian Way. The Georgian area around Oxford and Regent Streets is dominated by small professional firms. The Albert Hall faces the Gothic revival St Barnabas' Roman Catholic Cathedral by Pugin. Nottingham Castle and its grounds are located further south in the western third of the city. The central third descends from the University district in the north, past Nottingham Trent University's Gothic revival Arkwright Building. The University also owns many other buildings in this area. The Theatre Royal on Theatre Square, with its pillared façade, was built in 1865. King and Queen Streets are home to striking Victorian buildings designed by such architects as Alfred Waterhouse and Watson Fothergill.

To the south, is Broadmarsh Shopping Centre. The Canal-side further south of this is adjacent to Nottingham railway station and home to numerous redeveloped 19th-century industrial buildings, reused as bars and restaurants.

The eastern third of the city centre contains the Victoria Shopping Centre, built in the 1970s on the site of the demolished Victoria Railway Station. All that remains of the old station is the clock tower and the station hotel, now the Nottingham Hilton Hotel. The 250 feet-high Victoria Centre flats stand above the shopping centre and are the tallest buildings in the city. The eastern third contains Hockley Village. Hockley is where many of Nottingham's unique, independent shops are to be found. It is also home to two alternative cinemas.

Lace Market

Lace market justice galleries
Galleries of Justice in the Lace Market

The Lace Market area just south of Hockley has streets with four to seven-storey red brick warehouses, iron railings and red phone boxes.

Buildings have been converted into apartments, bars and restaurants. Adams Building, built by Thomas Chambers Hine for Thomas Adams (1817–1873), is currently used by New College Nottingham. The Georgian-built Shire Hall is home to the Galleries of Justice and was Nottingham's main court and prison building.

Pubs

Ye Olde Trip To Jerusalem (the Trip), partially built into the cave system beneath Nottingham Castle, is a contender for the title of England's Oldest Pub, as it is supposed to have been established in 1189. The Bell Inn in the Old Market Square, and Ye Olde Salutation Inn (the Salutation) in Maid Marian Way have both disputed this claim. The Trip's current timber building probably dates back to the 17th or 18th century, but the caves are certainly older and may have been used to store beer and water for the castle during medieval times. There are also caves beneath the Salutation that date back to the medieval period, although they are no longer used as beer cellars. The Bell Inn is probably the oldest of the three pub buildings still standing, according to dendrochronology, and has medieval cellars that are still used to store beer.

Culture

Sky Mirror, Nottingham
Nottingham Playhouse and Roman Catholic Cathedral reflected in Anish Kapoor's Sky Mirror

Theatres

Nottingham has two large-capacity theatres, the Nottingham Playhouse and the Theatre Royal, which together with the neighbouring Royal Concert Hall forms the Royal Centre. The city also contains smaller theatre venues such as the Nottingham Arts Theatre, the Lace Market Theatre and New Theatre.

Galleries and museums

The city contains several notable museums and art galleries including:

  • The Galleries of Justice – Museum of Law Trust based at the Shire Hall in the Lace Market
  • Green's Windmill and Science Centre – A unique working windmill in the heart of the city that was home to the 19th-century mathematical physicist and miller, George Green.
  • Nottingham Castle Museum – home to the city's fine and decorative art collections, along with the Story of Nottingham galleries, and the Sherwood Foresters Regimental Museum.
  • Nottingham Contemporary – Contemporary art gallery, which opened in 2009.
  • Nottingham Industrial Museum – in Wollaton Park.
  • Nottingham Natural History Museum – based at Wollaton Hall.

Cinemas

There is a Cineworld and a Showcase in the city. Independent cinemas include the Broadway Cinema, Savoy Cinema, (a four-screen Art Deco cinema), as well an Arthouse cinema in Hockley.

Music and entertainment

Albert Hall, Nottingham
The Albert Hall, Nottingham, one of the city's music venues.

Nottingham has several large music and entertainment venues including the Royal Concert Hall, Rock City, Nottingham Royal Concert Hall (2,500-capacity) and the Nottingham Arena (Social centre). Nottingham's City Ground played host to rock band R.E.M. in 2005, the first time a concert had been staged at the football stadium.

Nottingham also has a selection of smaller venues, including the Albert Hall (800-capacity), Ye Olde Salutation Inn, Malt Cross, Rescue Rooms, the Bodega, the Old Angel, the Central, the Maze, the Chameleon and the Corner. '60s Blues-rock band Ten Years After formed in Nottingham, as did the '70s pop act Paper Lace. Since the beginning of the 2010s, the city has produced a number of artists to gain media attention, including; Jake Bugg, London Grammar, Indiana, Sleaford Mods, Natalie Duncan, Ady Suleiman, Dog Is Dead, Saint Raymond, Childhood, Rue Royale, Spotlight Kid and Amber Run.

The city has an active classical music scene, with long-established ensembles such as the city's Symphony Orchestra, Philharmonic Orchestra, Nottingham Harmonic Society, Bach Choir, Early Music Group Musica Donum Dei and the Symphonic Wind Orchestra giving regular performances in the city. The Sumac Centre is a social centre in Forest Fields.

Wollaton Park in Nottingham hosts an annual family-friendly music event called Splendour. In 2009 it was headlined by Madness and the Pogues. The following year it was headlined by the Pet Shop Boys and featured, among others, Calvin Harris, Noisettes, Athlete and OK Go. In 2011 it featured headline acts Scissor Sisters, Blondie, Eliza Doolittle and Feeder. In 2012, performers included Dizzee Rascal, Razorlight, Katy B and Hard-Fi. In 2014, Wollaton Park hosted the first ever No Tomorrow Festival, featuring the likes of Sam Smith, London Grammar and Clean Bandit.

Nottingham is known for hip hop. Rofl Audio Recording Studios opened in 2013.

Arts and crafts

The Hockley Arts Market runs alongside Sneinton Market.

Food

There are several hundred restaurants in Nottingham, with there being several AA rosette winning restaurants in 2010 Iberico World Tapas, situation in the city centre, was awarded a Bib Gourmand in the 2013 Michelin Guide. Sat Bains on the edge of the city near Clifton Bridge is a two star Michelin restaurant.

Tourism

Nottingham Market Square Ferris Wheel
Ferris wheel in Old Market Square

In 2010, the city was named as one of the "Top 10 Cities to Visit in 2010" by DK Travel. In 2013 it was estimated the city received 247,000 overseas visitors.

There is a Robin Hood Pageant in Nottingham in October. The city is home to the Nottingham Robin Hood Society, founded in 1972 by Jim Lees and Steve and Ewa Theresa West.

In February 2008, a Ferris wheel was put up in the Old Market Square and was an attraction of Nottingham City Council's "Light Night" on 8 February. The wheel returned to Nottingham in February 2009 to mark another night of lights, activities, illuminations and entertainment. Initially marketed as the Nottingham Eye, it was later redubbed as the Nottingham Wheel, to avoid any association with the London Eye. It was seen again in 2010 and 2015.

Nottinghamstreet
New buildings on the south side of the Lace Market area.

People

Many local businesses and organisations use the worldwide fame of Robin Hood to represent or promote their brands. Many residents converse in the East Midlands dialect. The friendly term of greeting "Ay-up midduk" is a humorous example of the local dialect. but with an unclear origin.

Miscellaneous

In 2015 the National Videogame Arcade was opened in the Hockley area of the city; being "the UK's first cultural centre for videogames".

In 2013, Nottingham was named the most haunted city in England, reflecting its historical past.

Nottingham has hosted an annual Asian Mela in every summer since about 1989. Nottingham also hosts a parade on St Patrick's Day, Fireworks at the Chinese New Year, Holi in the Park celebrating Hinduism, a West Indian-style Carnival, and several Sikh events.

Nottingham has featured in a number of fictional works.

Transport

Nottingham railway station
Nottingham railway station

Nottingham is served by East Midlands Airport (formerly known as Nottingham East Midlands Airport until it reverted to its original name), near Castle Donington in North West Leicestershire, just under 15 miles (24 km) south-west of the city centre.

Nottingham Station, the second busiest railway station in the Midlands for passenger entries and exits, provides rail services for the city; with connections operated by CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains and Northern.

Geograph-703359-by-Jerry-Evans
British Waterways building (formerly the Trent Navigation Company warehouse) on the Nottingham Canal

The reintroduction of trams in 2004 made Nottingham the newest of only six English cities to have a light rail system. The trams run from the city centre to Hucknall in the north, with a spur to the Phoenix Park Park and Ride close to Junction 26 of the M1. Two new lines opened in 2015 extending the network to the southern suburbs of Wilford and Clifton and the western suburbs of Beeston and Chilwell.

The city has the largest public bus network in the UK, In September 2010, Nottingham was named "England's least car-dependent city" by the Campaign for Better Transport with London and Manchester in second and fourth place respectively. In November 2010, Nottingham City Council won Transport Authority of the Year by the UK Bus Awards, for services for providing safer and sustainable public transport.

Nottingham's waterways, now primarily used for leisure, have been extensively used for transport in the past.

Religion

Armslttingham
Unitarian Chapel on High Pavement, now the Pitcher and Piano public house

The traditional requirement of city status is a (Church of England) cathedral. Nottingham, however, does not have one, having only been designated a city in 1897, in celebration of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. From around AD 1100 Nottingham was part of the Diocese of Lichfield, controlled as an archdeaconry from Lichfield Cathedral in Staffordshire. However, in 1837 the archdeaconry was placed under the control of the Diocese of Lincoln. In 1884 it became part of the newly created Diocese of Southwell, which it, and the city, are still part of today. The bishop is based at Southwell Minster, 14 miles (23 km) north-east of the city.

Despite not having a cathedral, Nottingham has three notable historic Anglican parish churches, all of which date back to the Middle Ages. St. Mary the Virgin, in the Lace Market, is the oldest and largest. The church dates from the eighth or ninth centuries, but the present building is at least the third on the site, dating primarily from 1377 to 1485. St. Mary's is considered the mother church of the city and civic services are held here, including the welcome to the new Lord Mayor of Nottingham each year. It is a member of the Greater Churches Group. St. Peter's in the heart of the city is the oldest building in continuous use in Nottingham, with traces of building starting in 1180. St. Nicholas' is the third.

A variety of chapels and meeting rooms are in the town. Many of these grand buildings have been demolished, including Halifax Place Wesleyan Chapel, but some have been re-used, notably High Pavement Chapel which is now a public house. The national headquarters of the Congregational Federation is in Nottingham.

Nottingham is one of 18 British cities that do not have an Anglican cathedral. It is, however, home to the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Barnabas, which was designed by Augustus Pugin and consecrated in 1844. It is the cathedral church for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Nottingham.

Today there are places of worship for all major religions, including Christianity and Islam with 32 Mosques in Nottingham.

Nottingham has 30,000 Muslims, 15,000 Sikhs, 8,000 Hindus and 2,000 Jews.

Demography

The city of Nottingham has a population at 312,900 with the Greater Nottingham population at 729,977 and the Metro population at 1,543,000. The city of Nottingham has a density of 4,073/km2.

65.4% are White British, 6.1% are European/North American, 13.1% Asian, 4.3% African, 1.6% Middle Eastern, 1.1% South/Central American and 8.2% of West Indian origins. Nottingham is a very multi-cultural city with people from 93 different countries and 101 spoken languages with cuisines, religious institutions/places of worship, businesses and supermarkets all over Nottingham especially situated in Hyson Green, Forest Fields, Carrington, Radford, Lenton, Meadows, Dunkirk, Rylands, St Ann's, Sneinton, Aspley, Broxtowe, City, Basford, Bakersfield, Carlton and Arnold.

Twin cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom

Nottingham is twinned with the following cities:

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