Ancient Egypt, or the Egyptian Empire, was a society that began about 3150 BC, and lasted until 20 BC when it was invaded by the Roman Empire. It grew along the River Nile and was at its most powerful in the second millennium BC. Its land went from the Nile delta to Nubia, a kingdom which today is mostly in Sudan.
For most of its history, Egypt was prosperous due to the water from the Nile ensuring good crops. Crops were grown after the Nile flood water went down.
The Egyptians created a way of writing using hieroglyphs, built huge temples and tombs, traded with other areas, and had a powerful army. Their religion had many gods, and its priests were powerful and rich. Their rulers, called Pharaohs, were thought to be close to the gods.
The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques and the first known planked boats.
Also the Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty, made with the Hittites.
Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries.
A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy.
Archaeologists, who study objects left by ancient people, have found that people have lived along the Nile for a very long time. The fertile flood plains of the Nile allowed people to begin farming.
By the 10th millennium BC, the people in Egypt had begun growing cereal grains like wheat and barley. Because they were farming, they stayed in one place, and because they were settled, their society became more complex. This was an important step in the history of human civilization. This period in Egyptian history is called predynastic, as it happened before the large dynastic kingdoms were formed.
By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures. Each had begun farming crops and animals. Each had their own types of pottery and personal items, such as combs, bracelets, and beads.
In Upper Egypt, the south part of the country, the Badarian was one of the earliest cultures. It is known for its high quality pottery, stone tools, and its use of copper. They were followed by the Amratian and Gerzian cultures.
The different periods of ancient Egyptian history are:
- Predynastic Period (5500 – 3000 BC)
- Early Dynastic Period (1st & 2nd Dynasties, 3000 – 2700 BC)
- Old Kingdom (3rd to 6th Dynasties, 2700 – 2180 BC)
- First Intermediate Period (7th to 11th Dynasties, 2180 – 2050 BC)
- Middle Kingdom (11th to 14th Dynasties, 2080 – 1640 BC)
- Second Intermediate Period (15th to 17th Dynasties, 1640 – 1560 BC; the Hyksos)
- New Kingdom (18th to 20th Dynasties, 1560 – 1070 BC)
- Third Intermediate Period (21st to 25th Dynasties, 1070 – 664 BC)
- Late Period (26th to 31st Dynasties, 664 – 323 BC; the Persians)
- Graeco-Roman Egypt (323 – 30 BC; Ptolemaic to Roman)
The Intermediate periods included times when the traditional system broke down, the country was split, or invaded by foreign rulers, they had some periods when their government was challenged and sometimes overthrown.
Ancient Egypt was split up into many different districts called sepats. The first divisions were created during the Predynastic Period, but then, they were small city-states that ruled themselves. When the first pharaoh came to power, the sepats remained and were much like the counties in many countries today.
They stayed basically the same for a long time – there were 42 of them, and each was ruled by a governor chosen by the pharaoh. In later years the districts were called nomes and the governor was called a nomarch.
Ancient Egypt had a lot of different taxes, but there was no real money, so people paid each other with goods or work. The person who watched the tax collection was a scribe, and every tax collector in Egypt had to tell him every day how many taxes they had collected.
Each person paid different taxes based on the work that they did: craftsmen paid in goods, hunters and fishermen paid with food, and every single household in the country had to pay a labor tax every year by helping with work for the country, like mining or for canals. A lot of rich Egyptians paid poorer people to do this for them.
Language and writing
The language can be divided into six time periods:
- Archaic Egyptian (before 3000 BC). This language was found on carvings on pottery.
- Old Egyptian (3000 BC to 2000 BC). This language was used during the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period. It was found in pyramids, or Egyptian tombs, and was the first version of the language that had plural tense, which shows that there was more than one object being talked about.
- Middle Egyptian (2000 BC to 1300 BC). This language is called Classic Egyptian. It is found all over objects and tombs in Egypt, including Egyptian coffins. Books on science and society were written during this time, and a lot of the things we know about religion of the time are written in Classic Egyptian. Even after people stopped speaking this kind of Egyptian, writers still used it when they wrote books.
- Late Egyptian (1300 BC to 700 BC). This is the language of the New Kingdom, which was the best time in Egypt's history. There was a lot of knowledge being shared during this time, so we have a lot of very old books that were written in Late Egyptian. Many people believe that this version of the language was much like what Egyptians spoke.
- Demotic Egyptian (700 BC to 400 AD)
- Coptic Egyptian (300 AD to 1700 AD)
Egypt had writing called hieroglyphics, which is one of the two oldest written languages (the other is Sumerian cuneiform). Hieroglyphic writing dates to c. 3200 BC, and is composed of some 500 symbols. A hieroglyph can represent a word or a sound. The same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts. Hieroglyphs were for public purposes, used on stone monuments and in tombs. It was art, and often it was political propaganda.
The script used by priests for everyday writing on papyrus, wood or cloth. In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic, which was quicker and easier. While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction (though typically written from right to left), hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows.
The script used by ordinary people. A new form of writing, Demotic, became the main writing style. It is this form of writing – and formal hieroglyphs – which accompanies the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.
Religion was very important to Ancient Egyptians. To Egyptians, animals were holy and were worshiped. Because of this, Egyptians domesticated, or made pets of, animals very early and took very good care of them.
Because they were so religious, Egyptians created a lot of art of their gods. This art shows all different kinds of divine, or holy, creatures including the pharaoh, who was thought to be a god.
All the gods were important but some were more important than others.
The rich fertile soil came from annual inundations of the Nile River. The ancient Egyptians were thus able to produce an abundance of food, allowing the population to devote more time and resources to cultural, technological, and artistic pursuits. In ancient Egypt taxes were assessed based on the amount of land a person owned.
Farming in Egypt was dependent on the cycle of the Nile River.The Egyptians recognized three seasons: Akhet (flooding), Peret (planting), and Shemu (harvesting). The flooding season lasted from June to September, depositing on the river's banks a layer of mineral-rich silt ideal for growing crops. After the floodwaters had receded, the growing season lasted from October to February. Farmers plowed and planted seeds in the fields, which were irrigated with ditches and canals.
Egypt received little rainfall, so farmers relied on the Nile to water their crops. From March to May, farmers used sickles to harvest their crops, which were then threshed with a flail to separate the straw from the grain. Winnowing removed the chaff from the grain, and the grain was then ground into flour, brewed to make beer, or stored for later use.
Flax plants were grown for the fibers of their stems. These fibers were split along their length and spun into thread, which was used to weave sheets of linen and to make clothing. Papyrus growing on the banks of the Nile River was used to make paper.
Vegetables and fruits were grown in garden plots, close to habitations and on higher ground, and had to be watered by hand. Vegetables included leeks, garlic, melons, squashes, pulses, lettuce, and other crops, in addition to grapes that were made into wine.
The Egyptians believed that a balanced relationship between people and animals was an essential element of the cosmic order; thus humans, animals and plants were believed to be members of a single whole.
Cattle were the most important livestock; livestock were taxed. In addition to cattle, the ancient Egyptians kept sheep, goats, and pigs. Poultry such as ducks, geese, and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms.
The ancient Egyptians used donkeys and oxen as working animals. They plowed the fields and trampled seed into the soil. Horses were introduced in the Second Intermediate Period, and the camel, although known from the New Kingdom, was not used until the Late Period. There is also evidence to suggest that elephants were briefly used in the Late Period, but largely abandoned due to lack of grazing land.
Dogs, cats and monkeys were common family pets, while more exotic pets imported from the heart of Africa, such as lions, were reserved for royalty. Herodotus observed that the Egyptians were the only people to keep their animals with them in their houses.
Ancient Egyptians had some advanced medical knowledge for their time. They performed surgery, set broken bones and even knew about medicines. Not only did they have medicinal values, they also are believed to have been used the Gods to ward off evil spirits and demons.
To see how good they were at medicine one can look at the medical papyri which have survived to the present day. The Edwin Smith papyrus is the world's oldest surviving surgical document, from about 1600 B.C. The text describes anatomy, and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 48 types of medical problems in detail.
Ancient Egyptian pyramids are shaped stone masonry structures. They are the best known pyramid structures, and are some of the largest ever buildings. Over 130 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt. Most were built on the western side of the River Nile in desert areas.
Egyptian pyramids are often contain chambers and passages. The pyramids were built as the burial places of the Egyptian kings before the start of the old kingdom until the end of the middle kingdom. Because the Egyptians kept written records, we know about the building of some pyramids.
The Great Pyramid at Giza is the largest and most famous pyramid. It was built for Pharaoh Khufu. It is over 140 meters high and took 20 years to build. It is listed as one of the seven wonders of the world.
The step pyramid at Saqqara is the earliest pyramid which is still standing today. This was built in 2630 BC. It was a burial place of the Pharaoh Djoser. The architect of the step pyramid was Imhotep.
Engineering was an important activity in Egypt. Engineers were able to measure and survey the distance between two points. They designed and made the pyramids, which are nearly perfect geometrically. They could make cement, and developed large irrigation networks.
Another ability of the Egyptians was glass making. Archaeologists have found many pieces of beads, jars, figures and ornaments in tombs across the nation.
In 2005, the remains of an ancient glass-making factory was found.
- 3500 BC: Senet, a board game, is invented
- 3500 BC: Faience, the world's oldest earthenware, or pottery, is created
- 3300 BC: Bronze works are first created
- 3200 BC: Hieroglyphs are developed
- 3100 BC: Decimal system in use
- 3100 BC: Mining occurs on Mount Sinai
- 3100 BC: Ships are built in Abydos, an Egyptian city
- 3000 BC: Trading takes place between Egypt and Palestine
- 3000 BC: Copper plumbing in use
- 3000 BC: Papyrus, or ancient paper, is first used
- 3000 BC: First documented use of medicine
- 2900 BC: Perhaps the first steel use in the ancient world
- 2700 BC: First surgery performed
- 2700 BC: Surveying used by engineers
- 2700 BC: Hieroglyphs no longer just show little pictures of words, but become based on sounds
- 2600 BC: The Great Pyramids of Giza created
- 2600 BC: Shipping expeditions occur
- 2600 BC: First use of barges
- 2600 BC: Pyramid of Djoser created
- 2600 BC: Menkaure's Pyramid and the Red Pyramid created
- 2200 BC: Government in Egypt collapsed, meaning many different people tried to become King
- 1900 BC: Possible Nile to Red Sea canal created
- 1650 BC: The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is written, which shows knowledge of geometry, arithmetic and algebra
- 1600 BC: The Edwin Smith Papyrus is written, which shows knowledge of advanced medical techniques
- 1550 BC: The Ebers Medical Papyrus is written, the first document on the topic of tumours
- 1500 BC: Glassmaking
- 1258 BC: First known peace treaty (Ramesses II)
- 1160 BC: The Turin Papyrus is written, the first geologic and topographic map
Images for kids
Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes, Egypt (Eighteenth Dynasty)
Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy
An Egyptian chariot
The Narmer Pallette records the unification of Upper & Lower Egypt, ~3200 BC. Original in Egyptian Museum, Cairo
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.